Amy Si-Ying Lee

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Cancer cells adapt to chronic stress in the tumor microenvironment by inducing the expression of GRP78/BiP, a major endoplasmic reticulum chaperone with Ca(2+)-binding and antiapoptotic properties. GRP78 promotes tumor proliferation, survival, metastasis, and resistance to a wide variety of therapies. Thus, GRP78 expression may serve as a biomarker for(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis has been implicated in the development of multiple diseases. However, the in vivo signaling pathways are still not fully understood. In this report, through the use of genetically deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) and their matched wild-type controls, we have demonstrated that the mitochondrial(More)
The field of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in mammalian cells has expanded rapidly during the past decade, contributing to understanding of the molecular pathways that allow cells to adapt to perturbations in ER homeostasis. One major mechanism is mediated by molecular ER chaperones which are critical not only for quality control of proteins processed(More)
GRP78, also referred to as BiP, is a central regulator of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) function due to its roles in protein folding and assembly, targeting misfolded protein for degradation, ER Ca(2+)-binding and controlling the activation of trans-membrane ER stress sensors. Further, due to its anti-apoptotic property, stress induction of GRP78 represents an(More)
In response to oxidative stress, eukaryotic cells induce transcription of genes required for detoxification of oxidants. Here we present evidence that oxidative stress stimuli are transmitted by a multistep phosphorelay system to the Spc1/Sty1 stress-activated protein kinase in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The fission yeast mpr1(+) gene(More)
Mammalian cells respond to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by attenuation of protein translation mediated through the PERK-eIF2alpha pathway and transcriptional activation of genes such as Grp78/BiP encoding ER chaperone proteins. The disruption of PERK function or the blocking of eIF2alpha Ser51 phosphorylation fails to attenuate translation after ER(More)
GRP78, also known as BiP, is a central regulator of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis due to its multiple functional roles in protein folding, ER calcium binding, and controlling of the activation of transmembrane ER stress sensors. ER stress induction of GRP78/BiP represents a major prosurvival arm of the unfolded protein response (UPR). However, the(More)
Innate immune recognition of foreign nucleic acids induces protective interferon responses. Detection of cytosolic DNA triggers downstream immune signaling through activation of cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS). We report here the crystal structure of human cGAS, revealing an unanticipated zinc-ribbon DNA-binding domain appended to a core enzymatic(More)
A large number of correlative studies have established that the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) alters the cell's sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents. Although the induction of the glucose-regulated proteins (GRPs) is commonly used as an indicator for the UPR, the direct role of the GRPs in conferring resistance to DNA damaging agents(More)
The unfolded protein response is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism whereby cells respond to stress conditions that target the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The transcriptional activation of the promoter of GRP78/BiP, a prosurvival ER chaperone, has been used extensively as an indicator of the onset of the UPR. YY1, a constitutively expressed(More)