Learn More
OBJECTIVE To update the estimated global incidence of Japanese encephalitis (JE) using recent data for the purpose of guiding prevention and control efforts. METHODS Thirty-two areas endemic for JE in 24 Asian and Western Pacific countries were sorted into 10 incidence groups on the basis of published data and expert opinion. Population-based surveillance(More)
BACKGROUND Adherence to chronic disease management is critical to achieving improved health outcomes, quality of life, and cost-effective health care. As the burden of chronic diseases continues to grow globally, so does the impact of non-adherence. Mobile technologies are increasingly being used in health care and public health practice (mHealth) for(More)
Although the fluoroquinolones are presently used to treat tuberculosis primarily in cases involving resistance or intolerance to first-line antituberculosis therapy, these drugs are potential first-line agents and are under study for this indication. However, there is concern about the development of fluoroquinolone resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis,(More)
In view of the increasing licensure and use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, the relatively high cost, and growing issues with serotype emergence, there is a need to re-evaluate the role of pneumococcal protein vaccines (PPVs) and pathways to their licensure. This paper summarizes the discussion and viewpoints from an expert meeting regarding the(More)
Fluoroquinolones are widely used for the treatment of bacterial infections and are also second-line therapy for tuberculosis. However, fluoroquinolone resistance in patients with newly diagnosed cases of tuberculosis is not routinely assessed. We performed in vitro susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to fluoroquinolones for all(More)
The majority of children infected with human immunodeficiency virus live in resource-constrained settings and die without an established diagnosis. Definitive laboratory diagnosis in children younger than 12-18 months requires virologic testing; however, antibody testing is often the only option available. Antibody testing provides a definitive diagnosis in(More)
Hypoxaemia is commonly associated with mortality in developing countries, yet feasible and cost-effective ways to address hypoxaemia receive little or no attention in current global health strategies. Oxygen treatment has been used in medicine for almost 100 years, but in developing countries most seriously ill newborns, children and adults do not have(More)
Globally, pneumonia is the leading cause of death in children <5 years of age. Hypoxemia, a frequent complication of pneumonia, is a risk factor for death. To better understand the availability of oxygen and pulse oximetry, barriers to use and provider perceptions and practices regarding their role in childhood pneumonia, we conducted a survey using a(More)
Current pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are highly effective in preventing serotype-specific pneumococcal disease; however, they are relatively expensive and complicated to produce. Furthermore, PCVs do not cover all disease-causing pneumococcal serotypes. While current PCVs are available in industrialized countries and with external assistance in(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the provision of care for mother and child after institution of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV services. DESIGN As part of an effort to improve services, we undertook a review of our multicountry PMTCT program. METHODS Review of key indicators from our PMTCT database and reporting practices from January(More)