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To understand more about how the body recognizes alum we characterized the early innate and adaptive responses in mice injected with the adjuvant. Within hours of exposure, alum induces a type 2 innate response characterized by an influx of eosinophils, monocytes, neutrophils, DCs, NK cells and NKT cells. In addition, at least 13 cytokines and chemokines(More)
There is increasing awareness that helminth infections can ameliorate proinflammatory conditions. In part, this is due to their inherent ability to induce Th2 and, perhaps, regulatory T cell responses. However, recent evidence indicates that helminths also have direct anti-inflammatory effects on innate immune responses. In this study, we address this issue(More)
It has been recognized for nearly 80 years that insoluble aluminum salts are good immunologic adjuvants and that they form long-lived nodules in vivo. Nodule formation has long been presumed to be central for adjuvant activity by providing an antigen depot, but the composition and function of these nodules is poorly understood. We show here that aluminum(More)
Mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni develop polarized Th2 responses in which Th1 responses are prevented by IL-10-mediated suppression of IL-12 production. We show that dendritic cells from infected mice are primed to make IL-12 in response to CD40 ligation, and that IL-10 acts by inhibiting this process. In infected mice, two subpopulations of CD4(+)(More)
Alum is used as a vaccine adjuvant and induces T(h)2 responses and T(h)2-driven antibody isotype production against co-injected antigens. Alum also promotes the appearance in the spleen of Gr1+IL-4+ innate cells that, via IL-4 production, induce MHC II-mediated signaling in B cells. To investigate whether these Gr1+ cells accumulate in the spleen in(More)
Beryllium exposure results in beryllium hypersensitivity in a subset of exposed individuals, leading to granulomatous inflammation and fibrosis in the lung. In addition to its antigenic properties, beryllium has potent adjuvant activity that contributes to sensitization via unknown pathways. Here we show that beryllium induces cellular death and release of(More)
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