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The astrocyte-neuronal lactate-shuttle hypothesis posits that lactate released from astrocytes into the extracellular space is metabolized by neurons. The lactate released should alter extracellular pH (pHe), and changes in pH in central chemosensory regions of the brainstem stimulate ventilation. Therefore, we assessed the impact of disrupting the lactate(More)
Difficulties in finding, keeping, and ensuring the competence of the direct support workforce in community developmental disability services has long been a challenge for individuals, families, providers, and policy makers. Direct support staff recruitment, retention, and competence are widely reported as one of the most significant barriers to the(More)
tested the hypothesis that carbenoxolone, a pharmacological inhibitor of gap junctions , would reduce the ventilatory response to CO2 when focally perfused within the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN). We tested this hypothesis by measuring minute ventilation (VE), tidal volume (VT), and respiratory frequency (FR) responses to increasing concentrations of(More)
Training needs and current status of training for direct support staff were identified in one southeastern state. Data sources were (a) direct support staff, (b) administrators of direct support staff, and (c) consumers with developmental disabilities. Stratified sampling was used to gather data from 108 administrators and 170 direct support staff utilizing(More)
We tested the hypothesis that focally perfusing carbenoxolone, which blocks gap junctions, into the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) would reduce the ventilatory response to CO(2). We measured minute ventilation (V(E)), tidal volume (V(T)) and respiratory frequency (F(R)) responses to increasing concentrations of inspired CO(2) (F(I)(CO(2) = 0-8%) in rats(More)
The impacts of direct support professional turnover, wages, and vacancy rates as reported in interviews with 372 adult service recipients and 20 county managers and surveys of 183 families, 520 service coordinators, 228 direct support professionals, and 184 residential and 82 vocational managers were examined. Direct support professional turnover, wages,(More)
The size increase of skin epithelial cells during aging is well-known. Here we demonstrate that treatment of aging cells with cytochalasin B substantially decreases cell size. This decrease was demonstrated on a mouse model and on human skin cells in vitro. Six nude mice were treated by topical application of cytochalasin B on skin of the dorsal left(More)
Issues of recruitment and retention related to the direct support staff and how these issues affect the lives of people with developmental disabilities were investigated. Major findings included the following: (a) High direct support staff turnover and vacancy rates have negative consequences for many people who receive supports. (b) Direct support staff(More)
The growth and advancement of community-based services for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) have resulted in vast changes in the long-term services and support landscape as well as in expected outcomes of service systems for service recipients. Investments in IDD research have been made to provide a deeper understanding of these(More)