Amy Rispin

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In Vitro toxicology methods are being validated and adopted by regulatory agencies for use as alternatives to animal testing. Such methods may use ex vivo tissues or bioconstructs, some of which may be proprietary. Users of the data from these methods need to be reassured that the assays or assay components used in their studies provide consistent, good(More)
The authors have developed an improved version of the up-and-down procedure (UDP) as one of the replacements for the traditional acute oral toxicity test formerly used by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member nations to characterize industrial chemicals, pesticides, and their mixtures. This method improves the performance of(More)
Many in vitro and ex vivo methods have been developed or are under development to reduce or replace animal usage in toxicity tests. Consistent with the goal of obtaining scientifically sound test data for hazard and risk assessment of chemicals, changes are being made in current policies and procedures to facilitate the acceptance of data developed using(More)
The Office of Prevention, Pesticides, and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) grapples with testing issues on a daily basis. In this discussion, the current practices within OPPTS that relate to refining, reducing, and replacing (the 3Rs of) animal use are explained, based on the authors' experience. Pertinent background(More)
In vitro toxicology methods are being adopted by regulatory agencies worldwide. Many of these methods have been validated by using proprietary materials, often in the form of test kits. Guidelines for the use of Good Laboratory Practice methods for in vitro methods have been proposed. However, users of the data from these methods also need to be reassured(More)
3-Methylcholanthrene treatment induced large increases in high-spin P-450 form(s) in intact microsomal membranes from New Zealand White rabbit or C57BL/6N mouse liver but not in rabbit lung, kidney or intestine. Testosterone enhanced the high-spin/low-spin ratio of P-450 in female C57BL/6N liver to the same degree as 3-methylcholanthrene treatment; there(More)
This paper discusses the development of a system to organize, store, retrieve, and correlate data pertaining to chemicals and their biological and environmental effects. The particular problems of data identification, acquisition, classification, and automation are discussed in relation to existing data sources and methods of data collection and analysis.(More)
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