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Isotype switching is the DNA recombination mechanism by which antibody genes diversify immunoglobulin effector functions. In contrast to V(D)J recombination, which is mediated by RAG1, RAG2 and DNA double-stranded break (DSB) repair proteins, little is known about the mechanism of switching. We have investigated the role of DNA DSB repair in switch(More)
TRAF2 is believed to mediate the activation of NF-kappaB and JNK induced by the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily, which elicits pleiotropic responses in lymphocytes. We have investigated the physiological roles of TRAF2 in these processes by expressing a lymphocyte-specific dominant negative form of TRAF2, thereby blocking this protein's(More)
Target cell expression of certain MHC class I molecules correlates with resistance to lysis by NK cells. To explain this correlation, one hypothesis states that NK cells may possess two types of receptors; one may activate NK cells whereas another, specific for target cell MHC class I molecules, may inhibit natural killing by transducing negative signals.(More)
Many of the key decisions in lymphocyte differentiation and activation are dependent on integration of antigen receptor and co-receptor signals. Although there is significant understanding of these receptors and their signaling pathways, little is known about the molecular requirements for signal integration at the level of activation of gene expression.(More)
The B cell receptor (BCR) regulates B cell development and function through immunoglobulin (Ig)alpha and Ig beta, a pair of membrane-bound Ig superfamily proteins, each of which contains a single cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine activation motif (ITAM). To determine the function of Ig beta, we produced mice that carry a deletion of the cytoplasmic domain(More)
To determine the function of immunoglobulin (Ig)alpha immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) phosphorylation, we generated mice in which Igalpha ITAM tyrosines were replaced by phenylalanines (Igalpha(FF/FF)). Igalpha(FF/FF) mice had a specific reduction of B1 and marginal zone B cells, whereas B2 cell development appeared to be normal,(More)
NKR-P1 molecules are involved in natural killing of certain tumour targets. Indeed, the NK1.1 (NKR-P1C) molecule is the most specific serological marker on murine NK cells in C57BL/6 mice. Previous studies of NKR-P1 have indicated that anti-NKR-P1 mAb induced NK cells to kill otherwise insensitive targets, NK cell phosphoinositol turnover and Ca++ flux but(More)
Immunoglobulin (Ig)alpha and Igbeta initiate B cell receptor (BCR) signaling through immune receptor tyrosine activation motifs (ITAMs) that are targets of SH2 domain-containing kinases. To examine the function of Igbeta ITAM tyrosine resides in mature B cells in vivo, we exchanged these residues for alanine by gene targeting (Igbeta(AA)). Mutant mice(More)
We investigated the role of different lymphocyte subpopulations in the host defense reaction against influenza virus infection, taking advantage of various immunodeficient mouse strains. Whereas, following immunization, wild-type animals showed complete protection against challenge with a lethal dose of A/PR8/34 (PR8) virus, mice that lack both B and T(More)
To determine the function of immunoglobulin (Ig) ␣ immunoreceptor tyrosine–based activation motif (ITAM) phosphorylation, we generated mice in which Ig ␣ ITAM tyrosines were replaced by phenylalanines (Ig ␣ FF/FF). Ig ␣ FF/FF mice had a specific reduction of B1 and marginal zone B cells, whereas B2 cell development appeared to be normal, except that ␭ 1(More)