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Following the Asian Tsunami of 2004 and during the Israel–Lebanon Crisis of 2006, Sweden sent small crisis response teams to support civilians. The small size of the teams, combined with situations that did not always play out according to expectations and plans, presented a challenge to their resilience—their ability to adapt to circumstances outside of(More)
Common characteristics of crisis situations are ambiguous and unplanned for events. The need for improvised roles can therefore be an imperative factor for the success of an operation. The aim of this study is to deepen the understanding of the processes taking place during improvised work “as it happens”. A case study of a crisis management team at work is(More)
<b>Motivation</b> -- Designing distributed training systems for crisis management (CM) requires an approach with the ability to address a great variety of needs and goals. Crisis responses involve multiple agents, each with different backgrounds, tasks, priorities, goals, responsibilities, organizations, equipment, and approaches. Identifying the different(More)
In Emergency Management (EM) teams are faced with dynamic and complex situations, often involving multiple teams and organizations working together under stressful circumstances. One of the key issues observed in emergency responses is inadequate communication. The communicative difficulties stem from various areas such as political, personal or(More)
Re-framing is the process by which a person “fills the gap” between what is expected and what has been observed, that is, to try and make sense of what is going on following a surprise. It is an active and adaptive process guided by expectations, which are based on knowledge and experience. In this article, surprise situations in cockpit operations are(More)
<b>Motivation</b> -- Today's training systems for crisis management (CM) largely focus on technical and procedural skills. However the dynamic and unpredictable nature of a crisis also requires skills that are flexible, adaptive and creative. Training systems enforce limitations on the freedom of interaction the trainee has compared with the real world,(More)
Due to the chaotic nature of accidents and crisis, emergency responses tend to unfold in a highly dynamic fashion. It is therefore of key importance that emergency service staff are continually trained on being mindful of risks and to spot early signs of things that could go wrong during an emergency response. This need is confirmed by an initial focus(More)
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