Amy R. Winebarger

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It is now apparent that there are at least two heating mechanisms in the Sun's outer atmosphere, or corona. Wave heating may be the prevalent mechanism in quiet solar periods and may contribute to heating the corona to 1,500,000 K (refs 1-3). The active corona needs additional heating to reach 2,000,000-4,000,000 K; this heat has been theoretically proposed(More)
The actual source of coronal heating is one of the longest standing unsolved mysteries in all of astrophysics, but it is only in recent years that observations have begun making significant contributions. Coronal loops, their structure and sub-structure, their temperature and density details, and their evolution with time, may hold the key to solving this(More)
An exploratory study of 26 female urban, street-level sex workers was conducted to gather information about their health problems, feelings of stigmatizations, satisfaction with life, and literacy skills. Each woman completed the health questionnaire, Stigmatization Scale, Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine.(More)
We present electron density and temperature measurements from an active region observed above the limb with the Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation spectrometer on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. Density-sensitive line ratios from Si viii and S x indicate densities greater than 10 cm as high 3 as 200 (or 145 Mm) above the limb. At(More)
Many studies of the solar corona have shown that the observed X-ray luminosity is well correlated with the total unsigned magnetic flux. In this paper we present results from the extensive numerical modeling of active regions observed with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Extreme Ultraviolet Telescope (EIT), the Yohkoh Soft X-ray Telescope(More)
In an attempt to test current initiation models of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), with an emphasis on the magnetic breakout model, we inspect the magnetic topology of the sources of 26 CME events in the context of their chromospheric and coronal response in an interval of approximately nine hours around the eruption onset. First, we perform current-free(More)
The timescale for energy release is an important parameter for constraining the coronal heating mechanism. Observations of “warm” coronal loops (∼ 1MK) have indicated that the heating is impulsive and that coronal plasma is far from equilibrium. In contrast, observations at higher temperatures (∼ 3MK) have generally been consistent with steady heating(More)
Observations of transition region emission in solar active regions represent a powerful tool for determining the properties of hot coronal loops. In this Letter we present the analysis of new observations of active region moss taken with the Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on the Hinode mission. We find that the intensities predicted by(More)
We describe the characteristics and evolution of the magnetic field and chromospheric emission in an active region core observed by the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) on Hinode. Consistent with previous studies, we find that the moss is unipolar, the spatial distribution of magnetic flux evolves slowly, and that the magnetic field is only moderately(More)