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When a fiber is withdrawn at low speeds from a pure fluid, the variation in the thickness of the entrained film with imposed fiber velocity is well-predicted by the Landau–Levich–Derjaguin ͑LLD͒ equation. However, surfactant additives are known to alter this response. We study the film thickening properties of the protein BSA ͑bovine serum albumin͒, the(More)
Liquid crystal drops dispersed in a continuous phase of silicone oil are generated with a narrow distribution in droplet size in microfluidic devices both above and below the nematic-to-isotropic transition temperature. Our experiments show that the surface properties of the channels can be critical for droplet formation. We observe different dynamics in(More)
Worthington jets 1 are a familiar sight in light rain upon puddles and ponds. These narrow vertical jets are formed by the radial collapse of the liquid " craters " produced by the impacting rain drops 2–6. Such jets can also be generated by super-critically forcing the standing Faraday-waves 7–8 on a liquid surface and have recently been cast in the(More)
Software security research spans a broad spectrum of approaches. At one end, experts attempt to build systems that are secure by construction. At the other end, people deploy faulty software and leave it to security practitioners to clean up the mess. But cleaning up the mess isn't working: experience shows that post-hoc fixes can't be deployed in time to(More)
Determining how genetic variation alters the expression of heritable phenotypes across conditions is important for agriculture, evolution, and medicine. Central to this problem is the concept of genotype-by-environment interaction (or 'GxE'), which occurs when segregating genetic variation causes individuals to show different phenotypic responses to the(More)
We present an asymptotic analysis of the thickness of the liquid film that coats a smooth solid substrate when it is withdrawn from a bath of non-Newtonian fluid, and compare our results with experimental measurements. The film thickness is, to a good approximation, uniform above the point where the film is withdrawn from the fluid bath, and depends on the(More)
We investigate purely elastic flow instabilities in the almost ideal planar stagnation point elongational flow field generated by a microfluidic optimized-shape cross-slot extensional rheometer (OSCER). We use time-resolved flow velocimetry and full-field birefringence microscopy to study the behavior of a series of well-characterized viscoelastic polymer(More)
Applying uniform electric field (EF) in vitro in the physiological range has been achieved in rectangular shaped microchannels. However, in a circular-shaped device, it is difficult to create uniform EF from two electric potentials due to different electrical resistances originated from the length difference between the diameter of the circle and the length(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the structural changes of gray matter in women with primary dysmenorrhea (PDM) and discuss the potential relationships between the changes and etiology of the disease. METHODS We used an optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) approach to compare total and regional volumetric changes of gray matter in 20 primary dysmenorrhea(More)