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We develop a complete set of equations governing the evolution of a sharp interface separating a volatile-solvent/nonvolatile-surfactant solution from a vapor atmosphere. In addition to a sorption isotherm equation and the conventional balances for mass, linear momentum, and energy, these equations include an alternative to the Hertz-Knudsen-Langmuir(More)
Conventional studies of the optimum growth conditions for methanogens (methane-producing, obligate anaerobic archaea) are typically conducted with serum bottles or bioreactors. The use of microfluidics to culture methanogens allows direct microscopic observations of the time-integrated response of growth. Here, we developed a microbioreactor (microBR) with(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Forisomes are Ca(2+)-dependent contractile protein bodies that form reversible plugs in sieve tubes of faboid legumes. Previous work employed Vicia faba forisomes, a not entirely unproblematic experimental system. The aim of this study was to seek to establish a superior model to study these intriguing actuators. METHODS Existing(More)
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Forisomes are ATP-independent, Ca(2+)-driven contractile protein bodies acting as reversible valves in the phloem of plants of the legume family. Forisome contraction is anisotropic, as shrinkage in length is associated with radial expansion and vice versa. To test the hypothesis that changes in length and width are causally related, we monitored Ca(2+)-(More)
Supramolecular hydrogel microspheres are hydrogel particles formed by the self-assembly of hydrogelators in water, through non-covalent interactions. In this paper, we provide a novel strategy to prepare supramolecular hydrogel microspheres with diameters ranging from 15 to 105 microns by using microfluidics. Since the gelation temperature is ca. 64 degrees(More)
Surfactant molecules can self-assemble into various morphologies under proper combinations of ionic strength, temperature, and flow conditions. At equilibrium, wormlike micelles can transition from entangled to branched and multiconnected structures with increasing salt concentration. Under certain flow conditions, micellar structural transitions follow(More)
Worthington jets 1 are a familiar sight in light rain upon puddles and ponds. These narrow vertical jets are formed by the radial collapse of the liquid " craters " produced by the impacting rain drops 2–6. Such jets can also be generated by super-critically forcing the standing Faraday-waves 7–8 on a liquid surface and have recently been cast in the(More)
Self-assembly of surfactant molecules into micelles of various shapes and forms has been extensively used to synthesize soft nanomaterials. Translucent solutions containing rod-like surfactant micelles can self-organize under flow to form viscoelastic gels. This flow-induced structure (FIS) formation has excited much fundamental research and pragmatic(More)