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The GTPases Rac1, RhoA and Cdc42 act together to control cytoskeleton dynamics. Recent biosensor studies have shown that all three GTPases are activated at the front of migrating cells, and biochemical evidence suggests that they may regulate one another: Cdc42 can activate Rac1 (ref. 8), and Rac1 and RhoA are mutually inhibitory. However, their(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are activated by a plethora of stimuli. The literature is filled with papers describing the activation of different MAPKs by almost any stimulus or insult imaginable to cells. In this review, we use signal transduction wiring diagrams to illustrate putative upstream regulators for the MAPK kinase kinases,(More)
We propose a new and effective statistical framework for identifying genome-wide differential changes in epigenetic marks with ChIP-seq data or gene expression with mRNA-seq data, and we develop a new software tool EpiCenter that can efficiently perform data analysis. The key features of our framework are: (i) providing multiple normalization methods to(More)
Skeletal disorders and neural tube closure defects represent clinically significant human malformations. The signaling networks regulating normal skeletal patterning and neurulation are largely unknown. Targeted mutation of the active site lysine of MEK kinase 4 (MEKK4) produces a kinase-inactive MEKK4 protein (MEKK4(K1361R)). Embryos homozygous for this(More)
The GTPases Rac1, RhoA and Cdc42 act in concert to control cytoskeleton dynamics 1-3. Recent biosensor studies have shown that all three GTPases are activated at the front of migrating cells 4-7 and biochemical evidence suggests that they may regulate one another: Cdc42 can activate Rac1 8 , and Rac1 and RhoA are mutually inhibitory 9-12. However, their(More)
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