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The GTPases Rac1, RhoA and Cdc42 act together to control cytoskeleton dynamics. Recent biosensor studies have shown that all three GTPases are activated at the front of migrating cells, and biochemical evidence suggests that they may regulate one another: Cdc42 can activate Rac1 (ref. 8), and Rac1 and RhoA are mutually inhibitory. However, their(More)
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are sporadically acquired or inherited vascular lesions of the central nervous system consisting of clusters of dilated thin-walled blood vessels that predispose individuals to seizures and stroke. Familial CCM is caused by mutations in KRIT1 (CCM1) or in malcavernin (CCM2), the murine ortholog of which was(More)
Sensing the osmolarity of the environment is a critical response for all organisms. Whereas bacteria will migrate away from high osmotic conditions, most eukaryotic cells are not motile and use adaptive metabolic responses for survival. The p38 MAPK pathway is a crucial mediator of survival during cellular stress. We have discovered a novel scaffold protein(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are members of a dynamic protein kinase network through which diverse stimuli regulate the spatio-temporal activities of complex biological systems. MAPKs regulate critical cellular functions required for homeostasis such as the expression of cytokines and proteases, cell cycle progression, cell adherence, motility(More)
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an essential developmental program that becomes reactivated in adult tissues to promote the progression of cancer. EMT has been largely studied by examining the beginning epithelial state or the ending mesenchymal state without studying the intermediate stages. Recent studies using trophoblast stem (TS) cells(More)
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are vascular lesions causing seizures and stroke. Mutations causing inactivation of one of three genes, ccm1, -2, or -3, are sufficient to induce vascular endothelial cell defects resulting in CCM. Herein, we show that loss of expression of the CCM1, -2, or -3 proteins causes a marked increase in expression of the(More)
  • D R Ambruso, C Knall, +10 authors D Roos
  • 2000
A 5-week-old male infant presented with severe bacterial infections and poor wound healing, suggesting a neutrophil defect. Neutrophils from this patient exhibited decreased chemotaxis, polarization, azurophilic granule secretion, and superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) production but had normal expression and up-regulation of CD11b. Rac2, which constitutes >96% of(More)
Trophoblast differentiation during placentation involves an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) with loss of E-cadherin and gain of trophoblast invasiveness. Mice harboring a point mutation that renders inactive the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase MEKK4 exhibit dysregulated placental development with increased trophoblast invasion.(More)
Epithelial stem cells self-renew while maintaining multipotency, but the dependence of stem cell properties on maintenance of the epithelial phenotype is unclear. We previously showed that trophoblast stem (TS) cells lacking the protein kinase MAP3K4 maintain properties of both stemness and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Here, we show that MAP3K4(More)
Previous results from this laboratory suggested that the same active conformation of the lutropin/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHR) is involved in the stimulation of G proteins and in triggering the internalization of the bound agonist. We have now analyzed two naturally occurring, constitutively active mutants of the human LHR. These mutations were(More)