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OBJECTIVE Evaluate neuropsychological functioning in children with non-syndromic cleft of the lip and/or palate (NSCL/P) through profile variance within type of cleft and comparisons to controls. METHODS Children ages 7 to 17 years participated; 66 had a diagnosis of NSCL/P and 87 were healthy controls. Neuropsychological tests of language,(More)
Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies provide evidence for sex differences in the human brain. Differences in surface area and the proportion of gray to white matter volume are observed, in particular in the parietal lobe. To our knowledge, no studies have examined sex differences in parietal lobe structure in younger populations or in the context(More)
The aim of this study was to assess cognitive functioning in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and examine whether glycemic history influences cognitive function. Neuropsychological evaluation of 216 children (healthy controls, n = 72; T1D, n = 144) ages 4-10 years across five DirecNet sites. Cognitive domains included IQ, Executive Functions, Learning(More)
OBJECTIVE Preterm infants are frequently transfused with red blood cells based on standardized guidelines or clinical concerns that anemia taxes infants' physiological compensatory mechanisms and thereby threatens their health and well-being. The impact of various transfusion guidelines on long-term neurocognitive outcome is not known. The purpose of this(More)
The purpose of this study is to evaluate quantitative structural measures of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in boys with isolated clefts of the lip and/or palate (ICLP) relative to a comparison group and to associate measures of brain structure with quantitative measures of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattentiveness. A total of 50 boys with(More)
The purpose of this study was to assess neurological soft signs in children and adolescents with isolated cleft of the lip or palate (iCL/P) compared with healthy controls. Children with iCL/P were recruited through the university cleft clinic. Control subjects were recruited through advertisements. Of the 166 subjects who participated (age range 7 to 17(More)
This article reviews behavioral, neuropsychological, and academic outcomes of individuals with cleft across three age levels: (1) infancy/early development, (2) school age, and (3) adolescence/young adulthood. The review points out that attachment, neurocognitive functioning, academic performance/learning, and adjustment outcomes are the result of a complex(More)
Individuals with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) have altered brain structure compared with healthy controls. Preliminary evidence suggests that the corpus callosum may be dysmorphic in orofacial clefting; however, this midline brain structure has not been systematically assessed in this population. The goal of the present study(More)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate immediate auditory and visual memory processes in learning disability subtypes of 40 children born preterm. Three subgroups of children were examined: (a) primary language disability group (n = 13), (b) perceptual-motor disability group (n = 14), and (c) no learning disability diagnosis group without identified(More)
Previous research has shown sex differences in brain morphology ( De Bellis et al., 2001 ). However, these studies have not taken gender into account. Gender is a phenotype that describes behavior. In this study, we examined the relationship between gender, sex, and brain volumes in children. One hundred and eight children ages 7 to 17 were administered the(More)