Amy Lynn Conrad

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OBJECTIVE Evaluate neuropsychological functioning in children with non-syndromic cleft of the lip and/or palate (NSCL/P) through profile variance within type of cleft and comparisons to controls. METHODS Children ages 7 to 17 years participated; 66 had a diagnosis of NSCL/P and 87 were healthy controls. Neuropsychological tests of language,(More)
OBJECTIVE By using behavioral outcome measures of children who were born preterm, we evaluated differences between children who were born at term and children who were born at extremely low (ELBW; <1000 g) and very low birth weights (VLBW; 1000-1499 g) and assessed the relationship of birth weight, socioeconomic status, and cognitive ability to behavioral(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate potential abnormalities in brain structure of children and adolescents with unilateral clefts. DESIGN Case-control study. SETTING Tertiary care center. PARTICIPANTS Boys aged 7 to 17 years with right (n=14) and left (n=19) clefts were compared with healthy age-matched boys (n=57). MAIN EXPOSURES Structural brain measures were(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate speech, hearing, and neuropsychological correlates to reading among children, adolescents, and young adults with nonsyndromic cleft of the lip and/or palate (NSCL/P). METHOD All testing was completed in a single visit at a Midwestern university hospital. Subjects in both the NSCL/P (n = 80) and the control groups (n = 62) ranged in(More)
The aim of this study was to assess cognitive functioning in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and examine whether glycemic history influences cognitive function. Neuropsychological evaluation of 216 children (healthy controls, n = 72; T1D, n = 144) ages 4-10 years across five DirecNet sites. Cognitive domains included IQ, Executive Functions, Learning(More)
OBJECTIVE Preterm infants are frequently transfused with red blood cells based on standardized guidelines or clinical concerns that anemia taxes infants' physiological compensatory mechanisms and thereby threatens their health and well-being. The impact of various transfusion guidelines on long-term neurocognitive outcome is not known. The purpose of this(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the long-term outcome of brain structure in preterm infants, at an average age of 12 years, who received a red blood cell transfusion for anemia of prematurity. DESIGN As neonates, this cohort of infants participated in a clinical trial in which they received red blood cell transfusions based on a high pretransfusion hematocrit(More)
Social isolation is common among individuals with isolated cleft lip and palate (ICLP), but the available data on why this may be are mixed. We present a novel theory relating to reduced social motivation in ICLP, called the social abulia hypothesis. Based on this hypothesis, we predicted that reduced social motivation would lead to reduced responsiveness(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify regional cerebellar structural differences in boys and girls with nonsyndromic cleft of the lip and/or palate and determine whether these differences are related to speech impairment. DESIGN Between 2003 and 2007, measures on cerebellar volume were obtained on 43 children with nonsyndromic cleft of the lip and/or palate and 43 age-(More)
This article reviews behavioral, neuropsychological, and academic outcomes of individuals with cleft across three age levels: (1) infancy/early development, (2) school age, and (3) adolescence/young adulthood. The review points out that attachment, neurocognitive functioning, academic performance/learning, and adjustment outcomes are the result of a complex(More)