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BACKGROUND Treatment with peginterferon alfa-2a alone produces significantly higher sustained virologic responses than treatment with interferon alfa-2a alone in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We compared the efficacy and safety of peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin, interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin, and peginterferon alfa-2a(More)
α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid receptors (AMPARs) are the primary mediators of excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain. Alterations in AMPAR localization and turnover have been considered critical mechanisms underpinning synaptic plasticity and higher brain functions, but the molecular processes that control AMPAR trafficking(More)
Mitochondrial dysfunction is believed to participate in Huntington's disease (HD) pathogenesis. Here we compare the bioenergetic behavior of forebrain mitochondria isolated from different transgenic HD mice (R6/2, YAC128 and Hdh150 knock-in) and wild-type littermates with the first determination of in situ respiratory parameters in intact HD striatal(More)
Neuronal activity largely depends on two key components on the membrane: the Na,K-ATPase (NKA) that maintains the ion gradients and sets the foundation of excitability, and the ionotropic glutamatergic AMPA receptors (AMPARs) through which sodium influx forms the driving force for excitation. Because the frequent sodium transients from glutamate receptor(More)
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7) is a polyglutamine (polyQ) disorder characterized by specific degeneration of cerebellar, brainstem, and retinal neurons. Although they share little sequence homology, proteins implicated in polyQ disorders have common properties beyond their characteristic polyQ tract. These include the production of proteolytic(More)
Polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion within the ataxin-7 protein, a member of the STAGA [SPT3-TAF(II)31-GCN5L acetylase] and TFTC (GCN5 and TRRAP) chromatin remodeling complexes, causes the neurodegenerative disease spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7). Proteolytic processing of ataxin-7 by caspase-7 generates N-terminal toxic polyQ-containing fragments that(More)
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an inherited neuromuscular disorder caused by a polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat expansion in the androgen receptor (AR). PolyQ-AR neurotoxicity may involve generation of an N-terminal truncation fragment, as such peptides occur in SBMA patients and mouse models. To elucidate the basis of SBMA, we expressed(More)
BACKGROUND Legislation at state, federal, and international levels is requiring rapid evaluation of the toxicity of numerous chemicals. Whole-animal toxicologic studies cannot yield the necessary throughput in a cost-effective fashion, leading to a critical need for a faster and more cost-effective toxicologic evaluation of xenobiotics. OBJECTIVES We(More)
AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) play a critical role in mediating fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain. Alterations in receptor expression, distribution, and trafficking have been shown to underlie synaptic plasticity and higher brain functions, including learning and memory, as well as brain dysfunctions such as drug addiction and(More)