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CaBP1-8 are neuronal Ca(2+)-binding proteins with similarity to calmodulin (CaM). Here we show that CaBP4 is specifically expressed in photoreceptors, where it is localized to synaptic terminals. The outer plexiform layer, which contains the photoreceptor synapses with secondary neurons, was thinner in the Cabp4(-/-) mice than in control mice. Cabp4(-/-)(More)
At the presynaptic active zone, Ca²+ influx triggers fusion of synaptic vesicles. It is not well understood how Ca²+ channel clustering and synaptic vesicle docking are organized. Here, we studied structure and function of hair cell ribbon synapses following genetic disruption of the presynaptic scaffold protein Bassoon. Mutant synapses--mostly lacking the(More)
Ca2+-dependent facilitation and inactivation (CDF and CDI) of Cav2.1 channels modulate presynaptic P/Q-type Ca2+ currents and contribute to activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. This dual feedback regulation by Ca2+ involves calmodulin (CaM) binding to the alpha1 subunit (alpha12.1). The molecular determinants for Ca2+-dependent modulation of Cav2.1(More)
Ca(v)2.1 channels, which mediate P/Q-type Ca2+ currents, undergo Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent inactivation and facilitation that can significantly alter synaptic efficacy. Here we report that the neuronal Ca2+-binding protein 1 (CaBP1) modulates Ca(v)2.1 channels in a manner that is markedly different from modulation by CaM. CaBP1 enhances inactivation,(More)
A2A adenosine receptors (A(2A)Rs) are expressed with the greatest abundance in the striatum and other nuclei of the basal ganglia. The segregated expression of A(2A)Rs on the GABAergic striatopallidal medium spiny neurons, where A(2A)R and D2 dopamine receptor mRNAs are colocalized, and the opposing functional interaction between adenosine and dopamine(More)
Ca2+-binding protein-1 (CaBP1) is a Ca2+-binding protein that is closely related to calmodulin (CaM) and localized in somatodendritic regions of principal neurons throughout the brain, but how CaBP1 participates in postsynaptic Ca2+ signaling is not known. Here, we describe a novel role for CaBP1 in the regulation of Ca2+ influx through Ca(v)1.2 (L-type)(More)
Sound coding at the auditory inner hair cell synapse requires graded changes in neurotransmitter release, triggered by sustained activation of presynaptic Ca(v)1.3 voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. Central to their role in this regard, Ca(v)1.3 channels in inner hair cells show little Ca(2+)-dependent inactivation, a fast negative feedback regulation by(More)
In the hippocampal formation, Ca(v)1.2 (L-type) voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels mediate Ca(2+) signals that can trigger long-term alterations in synaptic efficacy underlying learning and memory. Immunocytochemical studies indicate that Ca(v)1.2 channels are localized mainly in the soma and proximal dendrites of hippocampal pyramidal neurons, but(More)
Mutations in the bestrophin-1 (Best1) gene are linked to several kinds of macular degeneration in both humans and dogs. Although bestrophins have been shown clearly to be Cl ion channels, it is controversial whether Cl channel dysfunction can explain the diseases. It has been suggested that bestrophins are multifunctional proteins: they may regulate(More)
PURPOSE The goal of this study was to investigate, with the use of CaBP5 knockout mice, whether Ca(2+)-binding protein 5 (CaBP5) is required for vision. The authors also tested whether CaBP5 can modulate expressed Ca(v)1.2 voltage-activated calcium channels. METHODS CaBP5 knockout (Cabp5(-/-)) mice were generated. The retinal morphology and visual(More)