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The eukaryotic cytoskeleton is essential for structural support and intracellular transport, and is therefore a common target of animal pathogens. However, no phytopathogenic effector has yet been demonstrated to specifically target the plant cytoskeleton. Here we show that the Pseudomonas syringae type III secreted effector HopZ1a interacts with tubulin(More)
Nutrient availability is one of the strongest determinants of cell size. When grown in rich media, single-celled organisms such as yeast and bacteria can be up to twice the size of their slow-growing counterparts. The ability to modulate size in a nutrient-dependent manner requires cells to: (1) detect when they have reached the appropriate mass for a given(More)
The changes of directional diffusivities derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), i.e. decreased axial diffusivity (lambda(||)) and increased radial diffusivity (lambda( perpendicular)), have shown significant correlation with axonal and myelin damage, respectively. However, after formalin fixation, reduced sensitivity of lambda(||) in detecting axonal(More)
Bacterial phytopathogens utilize a myriad of virulence factors to modulate their plant hosts in order to promote successful pathogenesis. One potent virulence strategy is to inject these virulence proteins into plant cells via the type III secretion system. Characterizing the host targets and the molecular mechanisms of type III secreted proteins, known as(More)
Using a spotted 65-mer oligonucleotide microarray, we have characterized the developmental expression profile from mid-gastrulation (75% epiboly) to 5 days post-fertilization (dpf) for >16,000 unique transcripts in the zebrafish genome. Microarray profiling data sets are often immense, and one challenge is validating the results and prioritizing genes for(More)
This paper presents a new method to solve functional equations of mul-in terms of a sum over finite sequences. We use this method to show how one would calculate the coefficients of the generating function for parallelogram polyominoes, which is impractical using other methods. We also apply this method to answer a question from fully commutative affine(More)
The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) is a three-item alcohol screening questionnaire where threshold scores of ≥4 for men and ≥3 for women have been associated with a higher risk of alcohol misuse. However, some response patterns yield inconsistencies: some individuals who report drinking within National Institute on Alcohol(More)
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