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Embryonic stem (ES) cells are derived from blastocyst-stage embryos and are thought to be functionally equivalent to the inner cell mass, which lacks the ability to produce all extraembryonic tissues. Here we identify a rare transient cell population within mouse ES and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell cultures that expresses high levels of transcripts(More)
The activity of voltage-gated ion channels is critical for the maintenance of cellular membrane potential and generation of action potentials. In turn, membrane potential regulates cellular ion homeostasis, triggering the opening and closing of ion channels in the plasma membrane and, thus, enabling ion transport across the membrane. Such transmembrane ion(More)
BACKGROUND Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) are a family of effector molecules for G-protein-coupled receptors. The 2 ACs most abundantly expressed in cardiac myocytes are types 5 (AC5) and 6 (AC6), which have 65% amino acid homology. It has been speculated that coexpression of 2 AC types in cardiac myocytes represents redundancy, but the specific role of AC6 in(More)
Mitochondria are proposed to be a major oxygen sensor in hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV), a unique response of the pulmonary circulation to low oxygen tension. Mitochondrial factors including reactive oxygen species, cytochrome c, ATP, and magnesium are potent modulators of voltage-gated K(+) (K(v)) channels in the plasmalemmal membrane of(More)
In this review, the pathological alteration and clinical relevance of voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels and their specific regulation by protein kinase-dependent signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells are described, particularly focusing on the pulmonary vasculature. The physiological relevance, channel characteristics, pharmacological modulation, and(More)
Factors contributing to the development of a fibrotic vascular scar and pulmonary vascular remodeling leading to chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) are still unknown. This study investigates the potential contribution of multipotent progenitor cells and myofibroblasts to the development and progression of CTEPH. Histological examination(More)
Voltage-gated K(+) (Kv) channels are important in the regulation of pulmonary vascular function having both physiological and pathophysiological implications. The pulmonary vasculature is essential for reoxygenation of the blood, supplying oxygen for cellular respiration. Mitochondria have been proposed as the major oxygen-sensing organelles in the(More)
Pulmonary vascular remodeling occurs in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). One factor contributing to this vascular wall thickening is the proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC). Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) and cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](cyt)) in PASMC are known to be(More)
Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and its receptor are known to be substantially elevated in lung tissues and pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC) isolated from patients and animals with pulmonary arterial hypertension. PDGF has been shown to phosphorylate and activate Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in PASMC. In this study, we(More)
Cardiac-directed expression of AC6 has pronounced favorable effects on cardiac function possibly not linked with cAMP production. To determine rigorously whether cAMP generation is required for the beneficial effects of increased AC6 expression, we generated a catalytically inactive AC6 mutant (AC6mut) that has markedly diminished cAMP generating capacity(More)