Learn More
Seven experiments examined the spatial reference systems used in memory to represent the locations of objects in the environment. Participants learned the locations of common objects in a room and then made judgments of relative direction using their memories of the layout (e.g., "Imagine you are standing at the shoe, facing the lamp; point to the clock").(More)
Three experiments investigated the role of egocentric orientation in subsequent memory for layouts learned via route (ground-level) and survey (aerial or overview) perspectives. Participants learned virtual environments from text descriptions (Experiment 1) or visual presentation (Experiments 1-3). In all experiments, scene recognition for route and survey(More)
The neural mechanisms underlying ground-level spatial navigation have been investigated, but little is known about other kinds of spatial navigation. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to identify differences in brain activation for two types of spatial information, information from the ground-level perspective (route) and information from a(More)
Elevated hippocampal activation is observed in conditions that confer risk for Alzheimer's disease, including amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Studies in relevant animal models have indicated that overactivity in selective hippocampal circuits contributes to cognitive impairment. Here, we tested the effect of reducing hippocampal activation in(More)
Previous research on spatial memory indicated that memories of small layouts were orientation dependent (orientation specific) but that memories of large layouts were orientation independent (orientation free). Two experiments investigated the relation between layout size and orientation dependency. Participants learned a small or a large 4-point path(More)
Behavioral studies have shown that spatial skills, such as mental rotation, are correlated with preferences for certain types of spatial information. To be more specific, better mental rotation is associated with a preference for survey (maplike) spatial information relative to route (landmark or wayfinding) information. Functional MRI was used to(More)
Giving directions or describing an environment often requires assuming perspectives other than one's own. We employed a spatial perspective-taking task to investigate how describing familiar versus novel perspectives affects subsequent memory. One participant (the director) viewed a display of objects from a single perspective and described the display to(More)
What properties determine visually perceived space? We discovered that the perceived relative distances of familiar objects in natural settings depended in unexpected ways onthe surrounding visual field. Observers bisected egocentric distances in a lobby, in a hallway, and on an open lawn. Three key findings were the following: (1) Perceived midpoints were(More)