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The chronology and history of characterizing the aromatic hydrocarbon [Ah] battery is reviewed. This battery represents the Ah receptor (AHR)-mediated control of at least six, and probably many more, dioxin-inducible genes; two cytochrome P450 genes-P450 1A1 and 1A2 (Cypla1, Cypla2-and four non-P450 genes, have experimentally been documented to be members(More)
Current regulatory guidances do not address specific study designs for in vitro and in vivo drug-drug interaction studies. There is a common desire by regulatory authorities and by industry sponsors to harmonize approaches, to allow for a better assessment of the significance of findings across different studies and drugs. There is also a growing consensus(More)
Current regulatory guidances do not address specific study designs for in vitro and in vivo drug-drug interaction studies. There is a common desire by regulatory authorities and by industry sponsors to harmonize approaches to allow for a better assessment of the significance of findings across different studies and drugs. There is also a growing consensus(More)
NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) catalyzes the two- or four-electron reduction of numerous endogenous and environmental quinones (e.g., the vitamin E alpha-tocopherol quinone, menadione, benzene quinones). In laboratory animals treated with various environmental chemicals, inhibition of NQO1 metabolism has long been known to increase the risk of(More)
The effect of acetaminophen (APAP) dose on the cytochrome P450s responsible for its bioactivation was examined in control mice and mice treated with acetone to induce CYP2E1, or beta-napthaflavone to induce CYP1A2. In non-induced mice, 150 mg/kg APAP caused minimal hepatotoxicity and loss of CYP2E1- but not CYP1A2-dependent activity. In contrast, 400 mg/kg(More)
A novel application of x-ray absorption spectroscopy has provided structural information for ions sorbed at oxide-water interfaces. As an example, in situ extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements of adsorbed selenate and selenite ions at ah alpha-FeOOH(goethite)-water interface have been performed; these measurements show that selenate(More)
National and international chemical management programs are assessing thousands of chemicals for their persistence, bioaccumulative and environmental toxic properties; however, data for evaluating the bioaccumulation potential for fish are limited. Computer based models that account for the uptake and elimination processes that contribute to bioaccumulation(More)
Mercury contamination of local fish stocks has become an escalating problem in the United States. Federal and state governments increasingly have issued fish consumption advisories to warn individuals of the risks of eating specific species of fish in particular quantities from individual bodies of water. Some indigenous groups in the United States who rely(More)
OBJECTIVE To characterize the effect(s) of gender, age (glycemic status) and obese state, on hepatic biotransformation activities, expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) mRNAs and glutathione transferase activity in the ob/ob mouse. DESIGN Male and female, ob/ob or ob/+ mice were killed at 3-4 months or 7-8 months of age. Hepatic microsomes, cytosol and(More)
Characterization and regulation of angiotensin II (AII) receptor binding sites was performed in rat membrane preparations from nonadipose (liver, lung) and adipose (interscapular (ISBAT) and periaortic (PA) brown adipose tissue; epididymal (EF) and retroperitoneal (RPF) white adipose tissue). In membrane preparations from brown and white adipose sources,(More)