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The chronology and history of characterizing the aromatic hydrocarbon [Ah] battery is reviewed. This battery represents the Ah receptor (AHR)-mediated control of at least six, and probably many more, dioxin-inducible genes; two cytochrome P450 genes-P450 1A1 and 1A2 (Cypla1, Cypla2-and four non-P450 genes, have experimentally been documented to be members(More)
Current regulatory guidances do not address specific study designs for in vitro and in vivo drug-drug interaction studies. There is a common desire by regulatory authorities and by industry sponsors to harmonize approaches, to allow for a better assessment of the significance of findings across different studies and drugs. There is also a growing consensus(More)
Current regulatory guidances do not address specific study designs for in vitro and in vivo drug-drug interaction studies. There is a common desire by regulatory authorities and by industry sponsors to harmonize approaches to allow for a better assessment of the significance of findings across different studies and drugs. There is also a growing consensus(More)
The metabolic fate of azimilide in man is unusual as it undergoes a cleavage in vivo resulting in the formation of two classes of structurally distinct metabolites. During a metabolite profiling study conducted in human volunteers to assess the contribution of all pathways to the clearance of (14)C-azimilide, greater than 82% of radioactivity was recovered(More)
The effect of acetaminophen (APAP) dose on the cytochrome P450s responsible for its bioactivation was examined in control mice and mice treated with acetone to induce CYP2E1, or beta-napthaflavone to induce CYP1A2. In non-induced mice, 150 mg/kg APAP caused minimal hepatotoxicity and loss of CYP2E1- but not CYP1A2-dependent activity. In contrast, 400 mg/kg(More)
National and international chemical management programs are assessing thousands of chemicals for their persistence, bioaccumulative and environmental toxic properties; however, data for evaluating the bioaccumulation potential for fish are limited. Computer based models that account for the uptake and elimination processes that contribute to bioaccumulation(More)
OBJECTIVE To characterize the effect(s) of gender, age (glycemic status) and obese state, on hepatic biotransformation activities, expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) mRNAs and glutathione transferase activity in the ob/ob mouse. DESIGN Male and female, ob/ob or ob/+ mice were killed at 3-4 months or 7-8 months of age. Hepatic microsomes, cytosol and(More)
NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) catalyzes the two- or four-electron reduction of numerous endogenous and environmental quinones (e.g., the vitamin E alpha-tocopherol quinone, menadione, benzene quinones). In laboratory animals treated with various environmental chemicals, inhibition of NQO1 metabolism has long been known to increase the risk of(More)
The use of natural products (NPs), including herbal medicines and other dietary supplements, by North Americans continues to increase across all age groups. This population has access to conventional medications, with significant polypharmacy observed in older adults. Thus, the safety of the interactions between multi-ingredient NPs and drugs is a topic of(More)