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Although valence electrons are clearly delocalized in molecular bonding frameworks, chemists and physicists have long debated the question of whether the core vacancy created in a homonuclear diatomic molecule by absorption of a single x-ray photon is localized on one atom or delocalized over both. We have been able to clarify this question with an(More)
We report the first kinematically complete study of the four-body fragmentation of the D2 molecule following absorption of a single photon. For equal energy sharing of the two electrons and a photon energy of 75.5 eV, we observed the relaxation of one of the selection rules valid for He photo-double-ionization and a strong dependence of the electron angular(More)
The wave nature of particles is rarely observed, in part because of their very short de Broglie wavelengths in most situations. However, even with wavelengths close to the size of their surroundings, the particles couple to their environment (for example, by gravity, Coulomb interaction, or thermal radiation). These couplings shift the wave phases, often in(More)
H2, the smallest and most abundant molecule in the universe, has a perfectly symmetric ground state. What does it take to break this symmetry? We found that the inversion symmetry can be broken by absorption of a linearly polarized photon, which itself has inversion symmetry. In particular, the emission of a photoelectron with subsequent dissociation of the(More)
In 1997, it was predicted that an electronically excited atom or molecule placed in a loosely bound chemical system (such as a hydrogen-bonded or van-der-Waals-bonded cluster) could efficiently decay by transferring its excess energy to a neighbouring species that would then emit a low-energy electron. This intermolecular Coulombic decay (ICD) process has(More)
We have measured fully differential cross sections for photo double ionization of helium 450 eV above the threshold. We have found an extremely asymmetric energy sharing between the photoelectrons and an angular asymmetry parameter beta approximately 2 and beta approximately 0 for the fast and slow electrons, respectively. The electron angular distributions(More)
We investigate single-photon double ionization of H(2) by 130 to 240 eV circularly polarized photons. We find a double slitlike interference pattern in the sum momentum of both electrons in the molecular frame which survives integration over all other degrees of freedom. The difference momentum and the individual electron momentum distributions do not show(More)
We demonstrate a method for determining the full three-dimensional molecular-frame photoelectron angular distribution in polyatomic molecules using methane as a prototype. Simultaneous double Auger decay and subsequent dissociation allow measurement of the initial momentum vectors of the ionic fragments and the photoelectron in coincidence, allowing full(More)
Fashion's cultural connections provide the groundwork for a theory to resolve the critical questions of protection for works that draw strongly on exogenous inputs. This article proposes that narrow protection for fashion is both economically justified, theoretically sound, and beneficial to the field because it facilitates spillovers in a manner that(More)