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BACKGROUND In the face of an influenza pandemic, accurate estimates of epidemiologic parameters are required to help guide decision-making. We sought to estimate epidemiologic parameters for pandemic H1N1 influenza using data from initial reports of laboratory-confirmed cases. METHODS We obtained data on laboratory-confirmed cases of pandemic H1N1(More)
Using field, molecular and histological methods, an epizootic, systemic disease causing death within wood frog Rana sylvatica tadpoles and leopard frog Rana pipiens metamorphs at 3 different locations within Southern Ontario, Canada, has been investigated. Our results demonstrated that the probable cause of this disease was a ranavirus. Affected amphibians(More)
Atelognathus patagonicus is an endangered leptodactylid frog endemic to a small region in and around Laguna Blanca National Park in northern Patagonia, Argentina. All of the lakes and small ponds of the region (except Laguna Blanca itself) contain A. patagonicus and in all but one of these lakes the species shows clinical signs of a previously undiagnosed(More)
BACKGROUND Communicable disease outbreaks of novel or existing pathogens threaten human health around the globe. It would be desirable to rapidly characterize such outbreaks and develop accurate projections of their duration and cumulative size even when limited preliminary data are available. Here we develop a mathematical model to aid public health(More)
Global climate change is inevitable--the combustion of fossil fuels has resulted in a buildup of greenhouse gases within the atmosphere, causing unprecedented changes to the earth's climate. The Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change suggests that North America will experience marked changes in weather patterns in coming(More)
BACKGROUND The world is currently confronting the first influenza pandemic of the 21(st) century. Influenza vaccination is an effective preventive measure, but the unique epidemiological features of swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) (pH1N1) introduce uncertainty as to the best strategy for prioritization of vaccine allocation. We sought to determine optimal(More)
Norovirus is a common cause of gastroenteritis, and is thought to be the causative agent in 68-90% of all gastroenteritis outbreaks. The seasonality of disease occurrence is sufficiently stereotyped to result in this disease being dubbed "winter vomiting disease." The genesis of this seasonality has been obscure. We sought to identify environmental factors(More)
OBJECTIVE Acellular pertussis vaccine is safe and effective in adults. An explicit recommendation for pertussis booster vaccination in pediatric health care workers is based on the importance of health care workers as a potential source of infection for patients. However, limited information is available on the economic attractiveness of this intervention.(More)
OBJECTIVES During the first wave of the 2009 influenza pH1N1, disease burden was distributed in a geographically heterogeneous fashion. It was particularly high in some remote and isolated Canadian communities when compared with urban centres. We sought to estimate the transmissibility (the basic reproduction number) of pH1N1 strain in some remote and(More)
BACKGROUND Much remains unknown about the effect of timing and prioritization of vaccination against pandemic (pH1N1) 2009 virus on health outcomes. We adapted a city-level contact network model to study different campaigns on influenza morbidity and mortality. METHODS We modeled different distribution strategies initiated between July and November 2009(More)