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Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is the prototypic member of the family Arteriviridae, which together with the Corona- and Toroviridae constitutes the order Nidovirales. A common trait of these positive-stranded RNA viruses is the 3'-coterminal nested set of six to eight leader-containing subgenomic mRNAs which are generated by a discontinuous transcription(More)
Phylogenetic and antigenic analyses indicate that recent circulating equine-2 influenza viruses in the United States have been alternating between two genetic and antigenic distinct lineages since 1996. The evolution rates for these two lineages, the Kentucky and the Florida lineage, are very similar. For the earlier isolates in the Kentucky lineage, there(More)
Sero-epidemiological surveys have revealed that equine arteritis virus (EAV) is prevalent in most European countries. The virus causes sporadic cases of respiratory disease and abortion in horses, the incidence of which has increased in recent years. Mares and geldings eliminate virus after acute infection, but 30% to 60% of stallions become persistently(More)
Equine arteritis virus (EAV) is an enveloped, positive-stranded RNA virus belonging to the family Arteriviridae of the order Nidovirales. The unsegmented, infectious genome of EAV is 12,704 nt in length [exclusive of the poly(A) tail] and contains eight overlapping genes that are expressed from a 3'-coterminal nested set of seven leader-containing mRNAs. To(More)
Three murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that neutralize equine arteritis virus (EAV) infectivity were identified and characterized. The antibodies, 93B, 74D(B) and 38F, recognized the major envelope glycoprotein (GL) encoded by open reading frame (ORF) 5 in immunoblots and by immunoprecipitation. All three MAbs were used to compare the Bucyrus isolate of(More)
A virus that could not be identified as a previously known equine virus was isolated from the mononuclear cells of a horse. Electron microscopy revealed enveloped virions with nucleocapsid structures characteristic of viruses in the Paramyxoviridae family. The virus failed to hemabsorb chicken or guinea pig red blood cells and lacked neuraminidase activity.(More)
Clinical, pathological, immunohistochemical, serological and microbiological findings are described for 2 geographically and temporally distinct equine arteritis virus (EAV) epidemics in newborn foals. Outbreak A occurred at a commercial Standardbred breeding facility; Outbreak B began in a group of research animals. Clinical signs were severe and primarily(More)
Salem virus (SalV) is a recently identified equine virus belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae. The only known isolate was obtained from a horse that was involved in a disease outbreak of undetermined nature and the circumstances of its isolation suggested an etiologic role. However, the experimental infection of a colostrum-deprived foal failed to(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare antibody responses of horses naturally infected with West Nile virus (WNV) and those vaccinated against WNV, to identify whether vaccination interferes with the ability to diagnose WNV infection, and to determine the duration of antibody responses after vaccination. SAMPLE Sera from horses naturally infected with WNV (n = 10) and(More)