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6-phosphofructo-1-kinase, a rate-limiting enzyme of glycolysis, is activated in neoplastic cells by fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-BP), a product of four 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase isozymes (PFKFB1-4). The inducible PFKFB3 isozyme is constitutively expressed by neoplastic cells and required for the high glycolytic rate and(More)
Neoplastic cells transport large amounts of glucose in order to produce anabolic precursors and energy within the inhospitable environment of a tumor. The ras signaling pathway is activated in several cancers and has been found to stimulate glycolytic flux to lactate. Glycolysis is regulated by ras via the activity of(More)
Choline is an essential anabolic substrate for the synthesis of phospholipids. Choline kinase phosphorylates choline to phosphocholine that serves as a precursor for the production of phosphatidylcholine, the major phospholipid constituent of membranes and substrate for the synthesis of lipid signaling molecules. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based(More)
Angiogenesis requires the deposition of type IV collagen by endothelial cells into the basement membrane of new blood vessels. Stabilization of type IV collagen triple helix depends on the hydroxylation of proline, which is catalyzed by the iron-containing enzyme prolyl hydroxylase. This enzyme, in turn, requires ascorbic acid to maintain the enzyme-bound(More)
The regulation of metabolism and growth must be tightly coupled to guarantee the efficient use of energy and anabolic substrates throughout the cell cycle. Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-BP) is an allosteric activator of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK-1), a rate-limiting enzyme and essential control point in glycolysis. The concentration of Fru-2,6-BP in(More)
BACKGROUND Unlike glycolytic enzymes that directly catabolize glucose to pyruvate, the family of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatases (PFKFBs) control the conversion of fructose-6-phosphate to and from fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, a key regulator of the glycolytic enzyme phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1). One family member, PFKFB3, has been shown(More)
In human cancers, loss of PTEN, stabilization of hypoxia inducible factor-1α, and activation of Ras and AKT converge to increase the activity of a key regulator of glycolysis, 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFKFB3). This enzyme synthesizes fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (F26BP), which is an activator of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase, a key step of glycolysis. Previously,(More)
Inducible 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (iPFK-2; PFKFB3) produces fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (F2,6BP), which is a potent allosteric activator of 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase (PFK-1), the rate-limiting step in glycolysis. iPFK-2 functions as an activator of anaerobic glycolysis within the hypoxic microenvironment of growing tumors. The early embryo is challenged(More)
Estradiol (E2) administered to estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) breast cancer patients stimulates glucose uptake by tumors. Importantly, this E2-induced metabolic flare is predictive of the clinical effectiveness of anti-estrogens and, as a result, downstream metabolic regulators of E2 are expected to have utility as targets for the development of(More)
Cognate immunity against neoplastic cells depends on a balance between effector T cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells. Treg cells prevent immune attack against normal and neoplastic cells by directly suppressing the activation of effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We postulated that a recombinant interleukin 2/diphtheria toxin conjugate (DAB/IL2; Denileukin(More)