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Some regularities enjoy only an attenuated existence in a body of training data. These are regularities whose statistical visibility depends on some systematic recoding of the data. The space of possible recoding is, however, infinitely large--it is the space of applicable Turing machines. As a result, mappings that pivot on such attenuated regularities(More)
Acute mu and kappa opioids activate the ERK/MAPK phosphorylation cascade that represents an integral part of the signaling pathway of growth factors in astrocytes. By this cross-talk, opioids may impact neural development and plasticity among other basic neurobiological processes in vivo. The mu agonist, [D-ala2,mephe4,glyol5]enkephalin (DAMGO), induces a(More)
Intracellular recording techniques have been used to determine the electrophysiological properties of sympathetic neurones in ganglia of the caudal lumbar sympathetic chain (l.s.c.) and in the distal lobes of inferior mesenteric ganglia (i.m.g.) isolated from guinea-pigs. Passage of suprathreshold depolarizing current initiated transient bursts of action(More)
The action of the anticholinesterase Paraoxon on neuromuscular transmission in rat diaphragm and mouse omohyoideus preparations was investigated. In both preparations, when Paraoxon potentiated the twitch in response to a single nerve stimulus, repetitive muscle action potentials were recorded with an intracellular electrode placed at the motor end-plate(More)
1. A quantitative analysis of the time-dependent component of outward membrane current in atrial wall trabeculae from Rana catesbeiana and Rana ridibunda has been carried out using a double sucrose gap technique. 2. Separation of the different components of delayed outward current was hampered by the sigmoid onset of one of the outward current systems(More)
1. The nature and interactions of the membrane currents underlying induced pace-maker activity in frog atrial muscle have been investigated using a double sucrose gap technique. 2. The membrane current which controls the speed of the atrial pacemaker depolarization (the pace-maker current, ip), is shown to be an outward current activated within the plateau(More)
In addition to its use for heroin addiction pharmacotherapy in general, buprenorphine has advantages in treating maternal heroin abuse. To examine the gestational effects of buprenorphine on opioid receptor signaling, the [(35)S]-GTP gamma S in situ binding induced by the mu agonist [D-Ala(2),MePhe(4),Gly(5)-ol] enkephalin (DAMGO) or the nociceptin/orphanin(More)
For people with diabetes, recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia limit the brain's ability to sense dangerously low blood sugar levels. In this issue of the JCI, the mechanisms behind this clinical problem of hypoglycemia unawareness are addressed by Herzog et al. The authors provide compelling evidence that recurrent hypoglycemia enhances transport of lactate(More)
While many studies have shown that intensive glycemic control can prevent the microvascular complications of diabetes, the benefits of intensive glycemic control in preventing macrovascular complications, including heart attacks, strokes, and overall mortality, have been less clear. Intensive glycemic control almost always increases the frequency and(More)
In some regions of the developing rat brain such as the nucleus accumbens (Acb), mu opioid (MOP) receptor specific binding in the perinatal period exceeds that in the adult. To investigate the significance of these developmental changes, MOP and nociceptin/orphanin FQ (NOP) receptor binding and G protein coupling as determined by GTPgammaS binding(More)