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B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling is aberrantly activated in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) is essential to BCR signaling and in knockout mouse models its mutation has a relatively B cell-specific phenotype. Herein, we demonstrate that BTK protein and mRNA are significantly over expressed in CLL compared with normal B cells.(More)
Targeted therapy with imatinib and other selective tyrosine kinase inhibitors has transformed the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. Unlike chronic myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) lacks a common genetic aberration amenable to therapeutic targeting. However, our understanding of normal B-cell versus CLL biology points to differences(More)
BACKGROUND Flavopiridol is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor in phase II clinical development for treatment of various forms of cancer. When administered with a pharmacokinetically (PK)-directed dosing schedule, flavopiridol exhibited striking activity in patients with refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia. This study aimed to evaluate pharmacogenetic(More)
CpG island methylation is an epigenetic alteration that contributes to tumorigenesis by transcriptional inactivation of genes. Little is known about the overall levels of CpG island methylation in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). To provide a baseline estimate of global aberrant methylation and identify target sequences for additional investigation, we(More)
Despite promising preclinical studies with the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor flavopiridol in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and other diseases, previous clinical trials with this agent have been disappointing. The discovery of differential protein binding of flavopiridol in human and bovine serum contributed to an effective pharmacokinetic-derived(More)
The nuclear export protein XPO1 is overexpressed in cancer, leading to the cytoplasmic mislocalization of multiple tumor suppressor proteins. Existing XPO1-targeting agents lack selectivity and have been associated with significant toxicity. Small molecule selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINEs) were designed that specifically inhibit XPO1. Genetic(More)
We previously reported interim results of a phase 1 trial in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) whereby flavopiridol was administered intravenously as a 30-minute bolus followed by 4-hour infusion. We now report full pharmacokinetic (PK) data, correlations of PK with clinical outcomes, and final response and progression-free survival (PFS).(More)
Lenalidomide, an immunomodulatory agent that enhances antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), is currently being investigated as a therapy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The anti-CD20 antibody rituximab is active in CLL and represents a rational agent to combine with lenalidomide. We therefore examined whether lenalidomide combined with(More)
Ibrutinib is an orally administered inhibitor of Bruton tyrosine kinase that antagonizes B-cell receptor, chemokine, and integrin-mediated signaling. In early-phase studies, ibrutinib demonstrated high response rates and prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The durable responses observed with ibrutinib relate in(More)
PURPOSE The antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family member protein Mcl-1 is dynamically regulated in transformed B-cells, has a short mRNA and protein half-life, and is rapidly processed during apoptosis. Multiple therapies cause down-regulation of Mcl-1 in chronic and acute lymphoid leukemia (CLL and ALL) cells. Mcl-1 has also been reported to mediate resistance to(More)