Amy J Patrick

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We previously demonstrated that delivery of CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) to vaginal mucosa induced an innate mucosal antiviral state that protected against intravaginal challenge with herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2. We report that mucosal, but not systemic, delivery of ligands for Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3, but not TLR4, induced protection against genital(More)
Synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) containing unmethylated CpG dinucleotides within the context of certain flanking bases (CpG motifs) have been shown to induce potent innate and adaptive immune responses. Vaginal delivery of CpG ODN alone protects mice from vaginal herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) challenge. Here, we investigated the importance of(More)
Induction of neutralizing antibodies to prevent HIV infection, especially at the mucosa, is a critical goal of future vaccines. In this study, we have designed chimeric HIV-gag virus-like particles (VLPs) that contain multiple copies of the two highly conserved gp41 membrane-proximal external region (MPER) epitopes, ELDKWA and NWFDIT, with the objective of(More)
Vaccines capable of protecting against sexually transmitted infections, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), will depend on the induction of potent long-lasting mucosal immune responses in the genital tract. We evaluated vaginal and systemic immune responses and protection from vaginal challenge elicited after intranasal immunization of mice with(More)
The mammalian innate immune system recognizes pathogens via a series of pattern-recognition receptors such as the toll-like receptors (TLR) that interact with pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and lead to the rapid activation of innate immune cells. In this study, we compared the efficacy of CpG ODN (a TLR9 agonist) and resiquimod (R-848; a(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a mucosally transmitted infection that rapidly targets and depletes CD4+ T cells in mucosal tissues and establishes a major reservoir for viral persistence in gut-associated lymphoid tissues. Therefore, vaccines designed to prevent HIV infections must induce potent and durable mucosal immune responses, especially in the(More)
Antigen-presenting cells (APC) are specialized sentinel cells that sense pathogens within tissues and then activate appropriate immune effector cells in lymphoid organs. Recent evidence, however, suggests that APC can also induce effector cells in non-lymphoid organs. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of intravaginal (IVAG) delivery of(More)
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