BACKGROUND To determine whether specific angiotensin II receptor blockade with losartan offers safety and efficacy advantages in the treatment of heart failure over angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibition with captopril, the ELITE study compared losartan with captopril in older heart-failure patients. METHODS We randomly assigned 722 ACE inhibitor… (More)
The Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS) is a simple widely used 5-item measure of disability whose psychometric properties need more analysis in phobic disorders. The reliability, factor structure, validity, and sensitivity to change of the WSAS were studied in 205 phobic patients (73 agoraphobia, 62 social phobia, and 70 specific phobia) who… (More)
BACKGROUND Drugs that improve symptoms in patients with heart failure must also be assessed for their effects on survival. Ibopamine stimulates DA-1 and DA-2 receptors and causes peripheral and renal vasodilatation; the drug improves symptoms of heart failure. We assessed the effect of ibopamine on survival in patients with advanced heart failure in a… (More)
Ten patients with moderate heart failure who still had symptoms despite 40 mg frusemide daily were treated with increased doses of frusemide and the addition of captopril in randomised order. Four different methods were used to assess the patients' response to treatment. Both treatments improved symptom-limited exercise tolerance, higher-dose frusemide… (More)
The exercise capability of 39 patients with severe chronic heart failure was assessed in several ways and compared with measurements of cardiac output. The relation between cardiac index and exercise tolerance measured on a treadmill was poor (r = 0.191, p = 0.245). However, exercise tolerance measured with a series of self-paced corridor walk tests showed… (More)
Differences in QT dispersion (a predictor for sudden death) were observed in a subgroup of patients in the ELITE heart failure study of losartan compared with captopril, and may explain improved survival with losartan.
Incremental threshold loading (ITL) has been proposed as a test of inspiratory muscle strength and endurance. To date, however, there has been no standardized protocol for an ITL test, and no reference range, with different investigators using a variety of different pressure increments in small numbers of subjects. We developed an ITL test using the… (More)
Cardiac output was measured in ten patients at routine cardiac catheterisation and three patients with severe heart failure by means of a carbon dioxide rebreathing technique with a computer-assisted mass spectrometer and compared with cardiac output measured by thermodilution. There was a close correlation (r = 0.96, p less than 0.01) between the two… (More)