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Abnormal accumulation of beta-amyloid (Abeta) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with prominent brain inflammation. Whereas earlier studies concluded that this inflammation is detrimental, more recent animal data suggest that at least some inflammatory processes may be beneficial and promote Abeta clearance. Consistent with these observations,(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive neurodegeneration and cerebral accumulation of the beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta), but it is unknown what makes neurons susceptible to degeneration. We report that the TGF-beta type II receptor (TbetaRII) is mainly expressed by neurons, and that TbetaRII levels are reduced in human AD brain and(More)
Mitochondrial dysfunction is believed to participate in Huntington's disease (HD) pathogenesis. Here we compare the bioenergetic behavior of forebrain mitochondria isolated from different transgenic HD mice (R6/2, YAC128 and Hdh150 knock-in) and wild-type littermates with the first determination of in situ respiratory parameters in intact HD striatal(More)
The GABA(A) receptor is an important target for a variety of general anesthetics (Franks and Lieb, 1994) and for benzodiazepines such as diazepam. Specific point mutations in the GABA(A) receptor selectively abolish regulation by benzodiazepines (Rudolph et al., 1999; McKernan et al., 2000) and by anesthetic ethers (Mihic et al., 1997; Krasowski et al.,(More)
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7) is a polyglutamine (polyQ) disorder characterized by specific degeneration of cerebellar, brainstem, and retinal neurons. Although they share little sequence homology, proteins implicated in polyQ disorders have common properties beyond their characteristic polyQ tract. These include the production of proteolytic(More)
1. Each residue in the second transmembrane segment (TM2) of the human GABA(A) receptor alpha(2) subunit was individually mutated to tryptophan. The wild-type or mutant alpha(2) subunits were expressed with the wild-type human GABA(A) receptor beta(2) subunit in Xenopus oocytes, and the effects of these mutations were investigated using two-electrode(More)
gamma-Aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors are an important target for general anesthetics in the central nervous system. Site-directed mutagenesis techniques have identified amino acid residues that are important for the positive modulation of GABA(A) receptors by general anesthetics. In the present study, we investigate the role of an amino acid(More)
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an inherited neuromuscular disorder caused by a polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat expansion in the androgen receptor (AR). PolyQ-AR neurotoxicity may involve generation of an N-terminal truncation fragment, as such peptides occur in SBMA patients and mouse models. To elucidate the basis of SBMA, we expressed(More)
The TGF-beta signaling pathway is a key organizer of injury and immune responses, and recent studies suggest it fulfills critical roles in CNS function and maintenance. TGF-beta receptor activation results in phosphorylation of Smad proteins, which subsequently translocate to the nucleus to regulate gene transcription by binding to Smad binding elements(More)
Gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A) )receptors are targets for allosteric modulation by general anesthetics. Mutation of Ser270 within the second transmembrane domain of the GABA(A) receptor alpha subunit can ablate the modulation of the receptor by the anesthetic ether isoflurane. To investigate further the function of this critical amino acid residue,(More)