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BACKGROUND Realizing the importance of regular physical activity, particularly in the prevention of chronic diseases and unhealthy weight gain, it is important to study how physical activity changes during and after pregnancy using prospective study designs. The aim of this study was to describe the mode, duration, intensity, and changes in physical(More)
Previous research has suggested that exposure to elevated levels of drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) may cause pregnancy loss. In 2000-2004, the authors conducted a study in three US locations of varying DBP levels and evaluated 2,409 women in early pregnancy to assess their tap water DBP concentrations, water use, other risk factors, and(More)
BACKGROUND Measures to assess neighborhood environments are needed to better understand the salient features that may enhance outdoor physical activities, such as walking and bicycling for transport or leisure. The purpose of this study was to derive constructs to describe neighborhoods using both primary (neighborhood audit) and secondary (geographic(More)
In studying the relationship between an ordered categorical predictor and an event time, it is standard practice to include dichotomous indicators of the different levels of the predictor in a Cox model. One can then use a multiple degree-of-freedom score or partial likelihood ratio test for hypothesis testing. Often, interest focuses on comparing the null(More)
The built environment may be responsible for making nonmotorized transportation inconvenient, resulting in declines in physical activity. However, few studies have assessed both the perceived and objectively measured environment in association with physical activity outcomes. The purpose of this study was to describe the associations between perceptions and(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS The purpose of this study was to examine the association between urbanisation-related factors and diabetes prevalence in China. METHODS Anthropometry, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and community-level data were collected for 7,741 adults (18-90 years) across 217 communities and nine provinces in the 2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey to(More)
In studies of complex health conditions, mixtures of discrete outcomes (event time, count, binary, ordered categorical) are commonly collected. For example, studies of skin tumorigenesis record latency time prior to the first tumor, increases in the number of tumors at each week, and the occurrence of internal tumors at the time of death. Motivated by this(More)
BACKGROUND Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic pollutants that were broadly used in the United States until the 1970s. Common exposure to PCBs, DDT, and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), the most stable metabolite of DDT, may influence children's neurodevelopment, but(More)
BACKGROUND Epidemiologic literature suggests that exposure to air pollutants is associated with fetal development. OBJECTIVES We investigated maternal exposures to air pollutants during weeks 2-8 of pregnancy and their associations with congenital heart defects. METHODS Mothers from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a nine-state case-control(More)
Although Cox proportional hazards regression is the default analysis for time to event data, there is typically uncertainty about whether the effects of a predictor are more appropriately characterized by a multiplicative or additive model. To accommodate this uncertainty, we place a model selection prior on the coefficients in an additive-multiplicative(More)