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BACKGROUND Treatment with peginterferon alfa-2a alone produces significantly higher sustained virologic responses than treatment with interferon alfa-2a alone in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We compared the efficacy and safety of peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin, interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin, and peginterferon alfa-2a(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in patients with cirrhosis is difficult to treat. In patients with chronic hepatitis C but without cirrhosis, once-weekly administration of interferon modified by the attachment of a 40-kd branched-chain polyethylene glycol moiety (peginterferon alfa-2a) is more efficacious than a regimen of unmodified(More)
Understanding the factors that impede immune responses to persistent viruses is essential in designing therapies for HIV infection. Mice infected with LCMV clone-13 have persistent high-level viremia and a dysfunctional immune response. Interleukin-7, a cytokine that is critical for immune development and homeostasis, was used here to promote immunity(More)
Identifying key factors that enhance immune responses is crucial for manipulating immunity to tumors. We show that after a vaccine-induced immune response, adjuvant interleukin-7 (IL-7) improves antitumor responses and survival in an animal model. The improved immune response is associated with increased IL-6 production and augmented T helper type 17 cell(More)
The E3 ligase ARIH2 has an unusual structure and mechanism of elongating ubiquitin chains. To understand its physiological role, we generated gene-targeted mice deficient in ARIH2. ARIH2 deficiency resulted in the embryonic death of C57BL/6 mice. On a mixed genetic background, the lethality was attenuated, with some mice surviving beyond weaning and then(More)
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