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BACKGROUND There is a widely recognised lack of baseline epidemiological data on the dynamics and impacts of infectious cattle diseases in east Africa. The Infectious Diseases of East African Livestock (IDEAL) project is an epidemiological study of cattle health in western Kenya with the aim of providing baseline epidemiological data, investigating the(More)
BACKGROUND Infectious livestock diseases remain a major threat to attaining food security and are a source of economic and livelihood losses for people dependent on livestock for their livelihood. Knowledge of the vital infectious diseases that account for the majority of deaths is crucial in determining disease control strategies and in the allocation of(More)
Although energy imbalance is key to the development of childhood obesity, the association between different dietary components, reflected in diet quality scores, and children's weight status has not been extensively studied. The current study determined if diet quality, characterized according to 3 predefined scores, was associated with weight status in a(More)
Dietary flavonoids exert bone-protective effects in animal models, but there is limited information on the effect of different flavonoid subclasses on bone health in humans. The aim of this observational study was to examine the association between habitual intake of flavonoid subclasses with bone mineral density (BMD) in a cohort of female twins. A total(More)
Positive multi-locus heterozygosity-fitness correlations have been observed in a number of natural populations. They have been explained by the correlation between heterozygosity and inbreeding, and the negative effect of inbreeding on fitness (inbreeding depression). Exotic introgression in a locally adapted population has also been found to reduce fitness(More)
The passive transfer of antibodies from dams to offspring via colostrum is believed to play an important role in protecting neonatal mammals from infectious disease. The study presented here investigates the uptake of colostrum by 548 calves in western Kenya maintained under smallholder farming, an important agricultural system in eastern Africa. Serum(More)
Most studies of infectious diseases in East African cattle have concentrated on gastro-intestinal parasites and vector-borne diseases. As a result, relatively little is known about viral diseases, except for those that are clinically symptomatic or which affect international trade such as foot and mouth disease, bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic(More)
BACKGROUND Although a high intake of some flavonoid subclasses may reduce cardiovascular disease mortality, data regarding the in vivo mechanisms of action are limited. OBJECTIVE We examined associations between habitual flavonoid intakes and direct measures of arterial stiffness, central blood pressure, and atherosclerosis. DESIGN In a cross-sectional(More)
The accurate estimation of livestock weights is important for many aspects of livestock management including nutrition, production and appropriate dosing of pharmaceuticals. Subtherapeutic dosing has been shown to accelerate pathogen resistance which can have subsequent widespread impacts. There are a number of published models for the prediction of live(More)
Although laboratory data suggest that several flavonoid subclasses are involved in glucose metabolism, limited clinical and epidemiologic data are available. The current study examined associations between habitual intake of flavonoid subclasses, insulin resistance, and related inflammatory biomarkers. In a cross-sectional study of 1997 females aged 18-76(More)