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Cell walls are crucial for development, signal transduction, and disease resistance in plants. Cell walls are made of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and pectins. Xyloglucan (XG), the principal load-bearing hemicellulose of dicotyledonous plants, has a terminal fucosyl residue. A 60-kilodalton fucosyltransferase (FTase) that adds this residue was purified from(More)
Cytoplasmic members of the heat shock protein hsp70 family have recently been implicated in the transport of proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. In addition, other hsp70 homologues have been found in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria and, at least for the endoplasmic reticulum hsp70 homologue, may be involved in the proper(More)
Plants synthesize several families of low molecular weight (LMW) heat shock proteins (HSPs) in response to elevated temperatures. We have characterized two cDNAs, HSP18.1 and HSP17.9, that encode members of the class I family of LMW HSPs from pea (Pisum sativum). In addition, we investigated the expression of these HSPs at the mRNA and protein levels during(More)
Diverse higher plant species synthesize low molecular weight (LMW) heat shock proteins (HSPs) which localize to chloroplasts. These proteins are homologous to LMW HSPs found in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotes, a class of HSPs whose molecular mode of action is not understood. To obtain basic information concerning the role of chloroplast HSPs, we examined(More)
Allene oxide synthase (AOS) and fatty acid hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) are plant-specific cytochrome P450s that commit fatty acid hydroperoxides to different branches of oxylipin metabolism. Here we report the cloning and characterization of AOS (LeAOS) and HPL (LeHPL) cDNAs from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Functional expression of the cDNAs in(More)
New drugs are needed to treat toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasma gondii calcium-dependent protein kinases (TgCDPKs) are attractive targets because they are absent in mammals. We show that TgCDPK1 is inhibited by low nanomolar levels of bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs), compounds inactive against mammalian kinases. Cocrystal structures of TgCDPK1 with BKIs confirm(More)
Pea microsomes contain an alpha-fucosyltransferase that incorporates fucose from GDP-fucose into xyloglucan, adding it preferentially to the 2-O-position of the galactosyl residue closest to the reducing end of the repeating subunit. This enzyme was solubilized with detergent and purified by affinity chromatography on GDP-hexanolamine-agarose followed by(More)
The apicoplast is a relict plastid essential for viability of the apicomplexan parasites Toxoplasma and Plasmodium. It is surrounded by multiple membranes that proteins, substrates and metabolites must traverse. Little is known about apicoplast membrane proteins, much less their sorting mechanisms. We have identified two sets of apicomplexan proteins that(More)
Toxoplasmosis is a disease of prominent health concern that is caused by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Proliferation of T. gondii is dependent on its ability to invade host cells, which is mediated in part by calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1). We have developed ATP competitive inhibitors of TgCDPK1 that block invasion of parasites into(More)
The apicoplast is a relict plastid found in many apicomplexans, including the pathogens Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum. Nucleus-encoded apicoplast proteins enter the ER, and after cleavage of the signal sequence, are routed to the apicoplast by virtue of a transit peptide, which is subsequently removed. To assess the mechanisms of localization(More)