Amy D Proal

Learn More
The human body is a superorganism in which thousands of microbial genomes continually interact with the human genome. A range of physical and neurological inflammatory diseases are now associated with shifts in microbiome composition. Seemingly disparate inflammatory conditions may arise from similar disruption of microbiome homeostasis. Intracellular(More)
Early studies on vitamin D showed promise that various forms of the "vitamin" may be protective against chronic disease, yet systematic reviews and longer-term studies have failed to confirm these findings. A number of studies have suggested that patients with autoimmune diagnoses are deficient in 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-D) and that consuming greater(More)
Researchers have noted that the incidence of autoimmune diseases, such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis, is markedly higher in women than in men, but to date the reason for this disparity has been unclear. The vitamin D nuclear receptor (VDR) is expressed in the human cycling endometrium. Because the VDR controls expression of the cathelicidin and beta-defensin(More)
Microbes are increasingly being implicated in autoimmune disease. This calls for a re-evaluation of how these chronic inflammatory illnesses are routinely treated. The standard of care for autoimmune disease remains the use of medications that slow the immune response, while treatments aimed at eradicating microbes seek the exact opposite-stimulation of the(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW To demonstrate how dysbiosis of the human microbiome can drive autoimmune disease. RECENT FINDINGS Humans are superorganisms. The human body harbors an extensive microbiome, which has been shown to differ in patients with autoimmune diagnoses. Intracellular microbes slow innate immune defenses by dysregulating the vitamin D nuclear(More)
Studies of autoimmune disease have focused on the characteristics of the identifiable antibodies. But as our knowledge of the genes associated with the disease states expands, we understand that humans must be viewed as superorganisms in which a plethora of bacterial genomes - a metagenome - work in tandem with our own. The NIH has estimated that 90% of the(More)
Recent research has implicated vitamin D deficiency (serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D <50 nmol/L) with a number of chronic conditions, including autoimmune conditions such as multiple sclerosis, lupus, and psoriasis, and chronic conditions such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, metabolic syndrome, fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. It has been(More)
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)/myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) has long been associated with the presence of infectious agents, but no single pathogen has been reliably identified in all patients with the disease. Recent studies using metagenomic techniques have demonstrated the presence of thousands of microbes in the human body that were previously(More)
An extensive microbiome comprised of bacteria, viruses, bacteriophages, and fungi is now understood to persist in nearly every human body site, including tissue and blood. The genomes of these microbes continually interact with the human genome in order to regulate host metabolism. Many components of this microbiome are capable of both commensal and(More)