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Control of a group of mobile robots in a formation requires not only environmental sensing but also communication among vehicles. Enlarging the size of the platoon of vehicles causes difficulties due to communications bandwidth limitations. Decentralized control may be an appropriate approach in those cases when the states of all vehicles cannot be obtained(More)
Peptide YY (PYY) is released following food intake and regulates intestinal function and glucose homeostasis, but the mechanisms underpinning these processes are unclear. Enteroendocrine L cells contain PYY and express the acylethanolamine receptor, Gpr119. Here, we show that Gpr119 activation inhibited epithelial electrolyte secretion in human and mouse(More)
This paper is devoted to planning and control of a pattern formation of mobile robots when moving between goal points in a known and static environment. Path planning is performed for a reference point in the formation using the modified A* search, coupled with a proposed smoothing technique to generate a feasible trajectory with nonholonomic constraints of(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW An overview of recent developments documenting the neuropeptide Y (NPY) family's role in energy metabolism. Specifically focusing on site-specific functions of NPY and increasing evidence of peptide YY (PYY) as a weight loss therapeutic. RECENT FINDINGS Studying the NPY family in hypothalamic nuclei, other than the arcuate and(More)
Gut-derived peptides are known to regulate food intake by activating specific receptors in the brain, but the target nuclei and neurons influenced are largely unknown. Here we show that peripherally administered pancreatic polypeptide (PP) stimulates neurons in key nuclei of the hypothalamus critical for appetite and satiety regulation. In the lateral(More)
Recruitment of activated immune cells into white adipose tissue (WAT) is linked to the development of insulin resistance and obesity, but the mechanism behind this is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that Y1 receptor signaling in immune cells controls inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity. Selective deletion of Y1 receptors in the hematopoietic(More)
BACKGROUND Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is a potent anti-obesity agent known to inhibit food intake in the absence of nausea, but the mechanism behind this process is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Here we demonstrate that in response to i.p. injection of PP in wild type but not in Y4 receptor knockout mice, immunostaining for the neuronal(More)
Food intake and body weight are controlled by a variety of central and peripheral factors, but the exact mechanisms behind these processes are still not fully understood. Here we show that that macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1/GDF15), known to have anorexigenic effects particularly in cancer, provides protection against the development of obesity.(More)
BACKGROUND Y2 receptor signalling is known to be important in neuropeptide Y (NPY)-mediated effects on energy homeostasis and bone physiology. Y2 receptors are located post-synaptically as well as acting as auto receptors on NPY-expressing neurons, and the different roles of these two populations of Y2 receptors in the regulation of energy homeostasis and(More)
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) acting in the hypothalamus is one of the most powerful orexigenic agents known. Of the five known Y receptors, hypothalamic Y1 and Y5 have been most strongly implicated in mediating hyperphagic effects. However, knockout of individual Y1 or Y5 receptors induces late-onset obesity--and Y5 receptor knockout also induces hyperphagia,(More)