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Bacillus cereus causes diarrheal and emetic food poisoning syndromes as well as a variety of mild to severe infections. A dermonecrotic vascular permeability (VP) factor has been implicated as a virulence factor in these illnesses. Hemolysin BL was previously identified as a unique tripartite hemolysin possessing VP activity. In this study, a high-yield(More)
The usefulness of two commercial immunoassays for the detection of diarrheal enterotoxin of Bacillus cereus is unclear because the identity of the enterotoxin(s) has not been proven and the kits detect different proteins. We found that the Bacillus cereus Enterotoxin-Reversed Passive Latex Agglutination kit (Oxoid) detects the L2 component from hemolysin(More)
Bacillus cereus causes exotoxin-mediated diarrheal food poisoning. Hemolysin BL (HBL) is a well-characterized B. cereus toxin composed of three components (B, L1, and L2) that together possess hemolytic, cytotoxic, dermonecrotic, and vascular permeability activities. Here, we show that HBL causes fluid accumulation in ligated rabbit ileal loops at a dose of(More)
Bacillus cereus is a common cause of highly fulminant posttraumatic and metastatic endophthalmitis. Exotoxins or enzymes likely contribute to the severity of the infection, but specific virulence factors have not been identified. We developed two methods for the identification of B. cereus ocular virulence factors. In an in vitro assay that allows screening(More)
Eggs and egg dishes are important vehicles for Salmonella infections. Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella heidelberg, which can be isolated from chicken ovaries and feces, have been implicated in approximately 50% of the foodborne salmonellosis outbreaks in the United States. In this study, the growth of these three organisms,(More)
Defects in cheese, such as undesirable flavors, gas formation, or white surface haze from calcium lactate crystals, can result from growth of nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB). The potential for biofilm formation by NSLAB during cheese manufacturing, the effect of cleaning and sanitizing on the biofilm, and bacterial growth and formation of defects(More)
Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis strain E40 filaments were developed under conditions of a reduced water activity (a(w)) of 0.95 in tryptic soy broth (TSB) or tryptic soy agar (TSA) supplemented with 8% or 7% NaCl, respectively. Filament formation was accompanied by an increase of biomass without an increase in CFU and was affected by incubation(More)
The genus Bacillus includes members that demonstrate a wide range of diversity from physiology and ecological niche to DNA sequence and gene regulation. The species of most interest tend to be known for their pathogenicity and are closely linked genetically. Bacillus anthracis causes anthrax, and Bacillus thuringiensis is widely used for its insecticidal(More)
Bacillus cereus causes a highly fulminant endophthalmitis which usually results in blindness. We previously concluded that hemolysin BL (HBL), a tripartite necrotizing pore-forming toxin, is a probable endophthalmitis virulence factor because it is highly toxic to retinal tissue in vitro and in vivo. We also determined that B. cereus produces additional(More)
The presence of hemolysin BL (HBL; components L(2), L(1), and B)-encoding genes (hblC, hblD, and hblA) from 339 Bacillus cereus strains isolated in Thailand was determined. PCR analysis showed that all three hbl genes were detected in 222 strains (65.5%). Two, one or no hbl genes were detected in 3 (0.9%), 6 (1.8%), and 108 (31.8%) strains, respectively.(More)