Amy C. Clement

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Global analyses of monthly sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies from 1856 to 1991 are produced using three statistically based methods: optimal smoothing (OS), the Kalrnan filter (KF) and optimal interpolation (OI). Each of these is accompanied by estimates of the error covariance of the analyzed fields. The spatial covariance function these methods(More)
The large-scale controls on the climate of the South American Altiplano are investigated using local observations, reanalysis data and general circulation model experiments. The objective is to gain understanding of causes of climate variability and climate change by relating mechanisms that operate on timescales ranging from the intraseasonal to the(More)
determined as precisely as needed by choosing a sufficiently large time interval (t2 2 t1) between the corresponding measurements of z. 9. Analysis of structuresmeans that the structures were animated by the use of the Xmol program. Visual inspection of snapshots (similar to those available to online subscribers at http://www.sciencemag.org) allowed me to(More)
The response of El Niño to natural radiative forcing changes over the past 1000 yr is investigated based on numerical experiments employing the Zebiak–Cane model of the tropical Pacific coupled ocean– atmosphere system. Previously published empirical results demonstrating a statistically significant tendency toward El Niño conditions in response to past(More)
The climate response of the equatorial Pacific to increased greenhouse gases is investigated using numerical experiments from 11 climate models participating in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Fourth Assessment Report. Multimodel mean climate responses to CO2 doubling are identified and related to changes in the heat budget of the surface(More)
The causes of the seasonal cycles of the subtropical anticyclones, and the associated zonal asymmetries of sea surface temperature (SST) across the subtropical oceans, are examined. In all basins the cool waters in the east and warm waters in the west are sustained by a mix of atmosphere and ocean processes. When the anticyclones are best developed, during(More)
An attempt is made to determine the role of the ocean in establishing the mean tropical climate and its sensitivity to radiative perturbations. A simple two-box energy balance model is developed that includes ocean heat transports as an interactive component of the tropical climate system. It is found that changes in the zonal mean ocean heat transport can(More)
The global synchroneity of glacial-interglacial events is one of the major problems in understanding the link between Milankovitch forcing and the climate of the late Quaternary. In this study we isolate a part of the climate system, the tropical Pacific, and test its sensitivity to changes in solar forcing associated with changes in the Earth's orbital(More)