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The model organism Streptomyces coelicolor represents a genus that produces a vast range of bioactive secondary metabolites. We describe a versatile procedure for systematic and comprehensive mutagenesis of the S. coelicolor genome. The high-throughput process relies on in vitro transposon mutagenesis of an ordered cosmid library; mutagenized cosmids with(More)
Polarized growth is a fundamental property of cell growth and development. It requires the delivery of post-Golgi secretory vesicles to the site of polarized growth. This process is mediated by Rab GTPases activated by their guanine exchange factors (GEFs). The human fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, can grow in a budded yeast form or in a highly polarized(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical produced actively by mammalian cells, including neurons. Low levels of NO can function in intercellular signaling, but high levels are cytotoxic. This cytotoxic potential suggests that cells at risk for NO damage, such as neurons, might have NO resistance mechanisms to prevent cell death, and adaptive resistance to(More)
During CNS injury and diseases, nitric oxide (NO) is released at a high flux rate leading to formation of peroxynitrite (ONOO(*)) and other reactive nitrogenous species, which nitrate tyrosines of proteins to form 3-nitrotyrosine (3NY), leading to cell death. Previously, we have found that motor neurons exposed to low levels of NO become resistant to(More)
Depending on its concentration, nitric oxide (NO) has beneficial or toxic effects. In pathological conditions, NO reacts with superoxide to form peroxynitrite, which nitrates proteins forming nitrotyrosine residues (3NY), leading to loss of protein function, perturbation of signal transduction, and cell death. 3NY immunoreactivity is present in many CNS(More)
Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), otherwise known as methoxatin, is a water-soluble, redox-cycling orthoquinone that was initially isolated from cultures of methylotropic bacteria. It has been found to be a cofactor of some bacterial alcohol dehydrogenases, and is present in many animal tissues. It may be a novel vitamin because it has been shown to be(More)
Nitric oxide is utilized at low levels for intercellular signaling, and at high levels as a cytotoxic weapon during inflammation. Cellular NO resistance can be increased by prior exposure to sublethal NO levels to induce defense gene expression (adaptive NO resistance), which has been correlated with increased expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO1) and was(More)
As free-living non-motile saprophytes, Streptomyces need to adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions and this is reflected by an enormous diversity of regulatory proteins encoded by, for example, the genome of the model streptomycete Streptomyces coelicolor. In this organism, we have identified a new osmoregulation gene, osaC, encoding a member of(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical gas that has a Janus nature. As indicated by the literature and by our studies, in the cell, NO can either function as a beneficial physiological agent utilized for essential functions such as differentiation or neurotransmission, or as a pathological agent that causes or exacerbates central nervous system (CNS) disease(More)
The free radical, nitric oxide (NO), is synthesized by mammalian cells and is utilized for normal cellular functions. High levels of NO are released during disease, injury and inflammation. NO at high concentrations more readily combines with other oxidants to form reactive nitrogenous species (RNS), which can wreak havoc on the cell by damaging a variety(More)