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Guaranás, the carbonated beverages (sodas) of choice throughout much of Brazil, are mandated by Brazilian law to contain at least 300 mg guara’a (Paullinia cupana, Sapindaceae) seed per 100 ml soda. Were all the soda manufacturers adhering to the law, they would be consuming almost three times the annual production of seed. Guaraná seeds contain unusually(More)
Venom-injecting structures have arisen independently in unrelated arthropods including scorpions, spiders, centipedes, larval owlflies and antlions, and Hymenoptera (wasps, ants, and bees). Most arthropods use venom primarily as an offensive weapon to subdue prey, and only secondarily in defense against enemies. Venom is injected by biting with fangs or(More)
Estimates of the total number of species in existence are based, in part, upon assumptions about the host specificity of tropical insects. These estimates are difficult to evaluate because there is so little data available describing the host-plant affiliations of tropical insects. Over a three-year period, 690 trees in the Sinnamary River Basin of French(More)
Xylophagous insects derive nutrients from intractable substrates by producing or ingesting cellulolytic enzymes, or by maintaining associations with symbiotic microbes. Wood-boring cerambycid beetle larvae sometimes house maternally-transmitted endosymbiotic yeasts that are presumed to provide their hosts with nutritional benefits. These are thought to be(More)
The tribe Rhinotragini is a highly diverse assemblage of species; several of the genera that currently have a large number of species assigned to them are polyphyletic in nature and are in need of additional study and revisionary work. Because of this need for revisionary work, it is not currently possible to construct meaningful keys for the existing(More)
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