Amy B. Howell

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Three proanthocyanidin trimers possessing A-type interflavanoid linkages, epicatechin-(4beta-->6)-epicatechin-(4beta-->8, 2beta-->O-->7)-epicatechin (4), epicatechin-(4beta-->8, 2beta-->O-->7)-epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-epicatechin (5), and epicatechin-(4beta-->8)-epicatechin-(4beta-->8, 2beta-->O-->7)-epicatechin (6), were isolated from the ripe fruits of(More)
Ethyl acetate extracts of Sephadex LH20-purified proanthocyanidins of American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) exhibited potent biological activity by inhibiting adherence of uropathogenic isolates of P-fimbriated Escherichia coli bacteria to cellular surfaces containing alpha-Gal(1-->4)beta-Gal receptor sequences similar to those on epithelial cells(More)
The effect of cranberry juice (CJ) and cranberry proanthocyanidins (PAC) on the infectivity of human enteric virus surrogates, murine norovirus (MNV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV-F9), MS2(ssRNA) bacteriophage, and phiX-174(ssDNA) bacteriophage was studied. Viruses at high (approximately 7 log(10) PFU/ml) or low (approximately 5 log(10) PFU/ml) titers were(More)
Cranberry juice (CJ) and cranberry proanthocyanidins (PAC) are widely known for their antibacterial, antiviral, and pharmacological activities. The effect of CJ and cranberry PAC on the infectivity of foodborne viral surrogates, murine norovirus (MNV-1), feline calicivirus (FCV-F9), MS2 (ssRNA) bacteriophage, and ϕX-174 (ssDNA) bacteriophage after 0 min to(More)
Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) ingestion has long been associated with prevention of urinary tract infections. The beneficial mechanism was historically thought to be due to the fruit acids causing a bacteriostatic effect in the urine. However, recently, a group of proanthocyanidins (PACs) with A-type linkages were isolated from cranberry which(More)
Recent observational and clinical studies have raised interest in the potential health effects of cranberry consumption, an association that appears to be due to the phytochemical content of this fruit. The profile of cranberry bioactives is distinct from that of other berry fruit, being rich in A-type proanthocyanidins (PACs) in contrast to the B-type PACs(More)
Clinical, epidemiological and mechanistic studies support the role of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) in maintaining urinary tract health. Cranberry proanthocyanidins contain A-type linkages and have been associated with preventing adhesion of P-fimbriated uropathogenic Escherichia coli to uroepithelial cells. It is not known if the presence of the(More)
PURPOSE Cranberry proanthocyanidins have been identified as possible inhibitors of Escherichia coli adherence to uroepithelial cells. However, little is known about the dose range of this effect. Furthermore, it has not been studied directly in the urogenital system. To address these issues we tested the effect of a cranberry powder and proanthocyanidin(More)
BACKGROUND Ingestion of cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) has traditionally been utilized for prevention of urinary tract infections. The proanthocyanidins (PACs) in cranberry, in particular the A-type linkages have been implicated as important inhibitors of primarily P-fimbriated E. coli adhesion to uroepithelial cells. Additional experiments were(More)