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The role of genetic factors in extinction is firmly established for diploid organisms, but haplodiploids have been considered immune to genetic load impacts because deleterious alleles are readily purged in haploid males. However, we show that single-locus complementary sex determination ancestral to the haplodiploid Hymenoptera (ants, bees, and wasps)(More)
Most theories used to explain the evolution of eusociality rest upon two key assumptions: mutations affecting the phenotype of sterile workers evolve by positive selection if the resulting traits benefit fertile kin, and that worker traits provide the primary mechanism allowing social insects to adapt to their environment. Despite the common view that(More)
The evolution of eusociality is one of the major transitions in evolution, but the underlying genomic changes are unknown. We compared the genomes of 10 bee species that vary in social complexity, representing multiple independent transitions in social evolution, and report three major findings. First, many important genes show evidence of neutral evolution(More)
Pollination deficits in agricultural and natural systems are suggestive of large reductions in pollinator populations. However, actual declines are difficult to demonstrate using census data. Here, we show census data to be misleading because many abundant pollinators exhibit high levels of production of sterile diploid males usually found only in small(More)
Apis mellifera originated in Africa and extended its range into Eurasia in two or more ancient expansions. In 1956, honey bees of African origin were introduced into South America, their descendents admixing with previously introduced European bees, giving rise to the highly invasive and economically devastating "Africanized" honey bee. Here we ask whether(More)
Strong evidence exists for global declines in pollinator populations. Data on the population genetics of solitary bees, especially diet specialists, are generally lacking. We studied the population genetics of the oligolectic bee Lasioglossum oenotherae, a specialist on the pollen of evening primrose (Onagraceae), by genotyping 455 females from 15(More)
The genomes of eusocial insects have a reduced complement of immune genes-an unusual finding considering that sociality provides ideal conditions for disease transmission. The following three hypotheses have been invoked to explain this finding: 1) social insects are attacked by fewer pathogens, 2) social insects have effective behavioral or 3) novel(More)
Eusocial Hymenoptera, such as the European honey bee, Apis mellifera, have the highest recombination rates of multicellular animals.(1) Recently, we showed(2) that a side-effect of recombination in the honey bee, GC biased gene conversion (bGC), helps maintain the unusual bimodal GC-content distribution of the bee genome by increasing GC-content in high(More)
Under single locus complementary sex determination (sl-CSD), diploid males are produced from fertilized eggs that are homozygous at the sex-determining locus. Diploid males are effectively sterile, and thus their production generates a costly genetic load. Using allozyme electrophoresis, a large number of diploid males were detected in natural populations(More)
The process of domestication often brings about profound changes in levels of genetic variation in animals and plants. The honey bee, Apis mellifera, has been managed by humans for centuries for both honey and wax production and crop pollination. Human management and selective breeding are believed to have caused reductions in genetic diversity in honey bee(More)