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Bartonella bacilliformis, a Gram-negative, flagellated bacterium, infects human erythrocytes (haematic phase) and endothelial cells (tissue phase), resulting in a biphasic disease. In the tissue phase of disease (verruga peruana), infection leads to infection of endothelial cells and a pronounced proliferation of these cells, resulting in characteristic(More)
Bartonella bacilliformis was continuously internalized into human endothelial cells beginning shortly after addition of the bacteria and continuing for at least 24 h after infection in vitro, with a major increase in uptake occurring between 16 and 24 h. Preincubation of endothelial cells with C3 exoenzyme, which inactivated intracellular Rho-GTPase,(More)
Type a flagellins from two strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, strains PAK and JJ692, were found to be glycosylated with unique glycan structures. In both cases, two sites of O-linked glycosylation were identified on each monomer, and these sites were localized to the central, surface-exposed domain of the monomer in the assembled filament. The PAK flagellin(More)
The flagellin of Pseudomonas aeruginosa can be classified into two major types-a-type or b-type-which can be distinguished on the basis of molecular weight and reactivity with type-specific antisera. Flagellin from the a-type strain PAK was shown to be glycosylated with a heterogeneous O-linked glycan attached to Thr189 and Ser260. Here we show that b-type(More)
PURPOSE Dysfunction of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications. This study was undertaken to determine the role of eNOS in the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR), by investigating the functional consequences of its deficiency in the diabetic state. METHODS Diabetes was(More)
Leptospira interrogans causes a variety of clinical syndromes in animals and humans. Although much information has accumulated on the importance of leptospiral lipopolysaccharide in protective antibody responses, relatively little is known about proteins that participate in immune responses. Identification of those proteins induced only in the host is(More)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic Gram-negative human pathogen that is responsible for a broad range of infections in individuals with a variety of predisposing conditions. After infection, P. aeruginosa induces a marked inflammatory response in the host. However the mechanisms involved in bacterium recognition and induction of immune responses are(More)
Flagellin, the principal component of bacterial flagella, is a ligand for Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) or TLR11 and contributes to systemic inflammation during sepsis through activation of dendritic cells (DCs) and other cells of the innate immune system. Here, we report that flagellin and the TLR4 ligand, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), induced phenotypic and(More)
Although the cardiovascular benefits of the hormone estrogen are at least, in part, mediated by its antiproliferative effect on vascular smooth muscle, its action on the migration of these cells is unknown. To explore this relationship, female rat aortic smooth muscle cells were grown in hormone-free medium, and the effect of various concentrations of(More)
The Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) binding site has been predicted to be in the N terminus of the flagellin molecule. In order to better define the interaction between the N-terminal amino acids of Pseudomonas aeruginosa flagellin and TLR5, site-specific mutations were generated between residues 88 and 97 of P. aeruginosa PAK flagellin as well as outside of(More)