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Nosema ceranae is a relatively new and widespread parasite of the western honeybee Apis mellifera that provokes a new form of nosemosis. In comparison to Nosema apis, which has been infecting the honeybee for much longer, N. ceranae seems to have co-evolved less with this host, causing a more virulent disease. Given that N. apis and N. ceranae are obligate(More)
In recent years, a worldwide decline in the Apis mellifera populations has been detected in many regions, including Spain. This decline is thought to be related to the effects of pathogens or pesticides, although to what extent these factors are implicated is still not clear. In this study, we estimated the prevalence of honey bee colony depopulation(More)
Nosema ceranae has been suggested to be replacing Nosema apis in some populations of Apis mellifera honeybees. However, this replacement from one to the other is not supported when studying the distribution and prevalence of both microsporidia in professional apiaries in Spanish territories (transverse study), their seasonal pattern in experimental hives(More)
Microsporidiosis caused by infection with Nosema apis or Nosema ceranae has become one of the most widespread diseases of honey bees and can cause important economic losses for beekeepers. Honey can be contaminated by spores of both species and it has been reported as a suitable matrix to study the field prevalence of other honey bee sporulated pathogens.(More)
RNA viruses that affect honeybees have been involved in colony losses reported around the world. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the prevalence and distribution of honeybee viruses during 2006-2007 in Spanish professional apiaries, and their association with colony losses. Four hundred and fifty-six samples from apiaries located in different(More)
Acarapis woodi is an internal obligate parasite of the respiratory system of honey bees which provokes significant economic losses in many geographical areas. The main aim of this study was assess the A. woodi role in the "higher honey bee colony losses phenomenon" in Spain. Therefore, a new polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to amplify the(More)
The microorganisms Ascosphaera apis, Paenibacillus larvae and Melissococcus plutonius are the three most important pathogens that affect honeybee brood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of these pathogens in honeybee colonies and to elucidate their role in the honeybee colony losses in Spain. In order to get it, a multiplex(More)
The Small Hive Beetle (SHB) is considered one of the major threats to the long-term sustainability and economic success of honey bee colonies in Europe. The risk of introduction into the EU had been reported as moderate to high. Indeed, it has been recently reported an outbreak in the south of Italy. Here, the presence of Aethina tumida in beekeeping farms(More)
Acarapisosis is a disease of the adult honey bee Apis mellifera L., caused by the tracheal mite Acarapis woodi (Rennie), that affects the prothoracic tracheas of worker honey bees. Although it is not usually considered a real problem for honey bee colonies in southern Europe (mainly Spain and Greece), where the majority of professional beekeepers are(More)
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