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At the onset of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep there is a fall in ventilation and an increase in upper airway resistance (UAR). In healthy men there is a progressive increase in UAR as NREM sleep deepens. This study compared the pattern of change in UAR and ventilation in 14 men and 14 women (aged 18-25 yr) both during sleep onset and over the NREM(More)
Ventilation decreases at sleep onset. This change is initiated abruptly at alpha-theta electroencephalographic transitions. The aim of this study was to determine the contributions of reduced activity in respiratory pump muscles and upper airway dilator muscles to this change. Surface electromyograms over the diaphragm (Di) and intercostal muscles and(More)
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) has been ascribed to cardiac arrhythmia, possibly triggered by cerebral events. Young, noncompliant, substance-abusing males with convulsions may be at risk. EEG/ECG studies have not shown significant cardiac arrhythmias in these and other seizure patients. We reviewed resting ECGs in 75 epilepsy patients and(More)
It has been hypothesized that regulatory control in the respiratory system is state dependent. According to this view respiratory instability during sleep onset is a consequence of repeated fluctuations in arousal state. However, these speculations are based primarily on measurements during stable sleep, not during sleep onset itself. The aim of the present(More)
  • A Kay
  • 1986
An international multicentre study of adverse reactions to D-penicillamine was undertaken on 2879 patients exposed to the drug--1491 of them a prospective sample. The majority of patients were being treated for rheumatoid arthritis. Over a period of 18 months, 319 (21%) of patients in the prospective sample developed adverse reactions necessitating drug(More)
In normal young men, there is an abrupt fall in ventilation (VE), a rise in upper airway resistance (UAR), and falls in the activities of the diaphragm (Di), intercostals (IC), genioglossus (GG), and tensor palatini (TP) at sleep onset. On waking, there is an abrupt increase in VE and fall in UAR and an increase in the activities of Di, IC, GG, and TP. The(More)
A prospective double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial was conducted to assess the use of ADCON-T/N after flexor tendon repair in Zone II. Forty-five patients with 82 flexor tendon repairs in 50 digits completed the study. ADCON-T/N was injected into the tendon sheath after tenorrhaphy in the experimental group while the control group was not(More)
A total of 1074 patients, the survivors of a multicentre sample of 1085 who, 9-15 months earlier, had undergone total hip replacement, were asked to complete a questionnaire about their satisfaction with the outcome of surgery. Of 1027 (96%) who responded, 90% were satisfied, 5% were unsure and 3% were dissatisfied with the result--2% failed to answer the(More)
Ventilation is lower during sleep than wakefulness. An increase in airway resistance has been proposed as the critical factor. As the change in ventilation has been shown to occur abruptly at transitions between alpha and theta electroencephalogram activity, it was of interest to determine whether the increase in airway resistance between wakefulness and(More)