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Colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) is a glycoprotein growth factor required for the proliferation and differentiation of mononuclear phagocytic cells (reviewed in ref. 1). A 10,000-fold elevation of mouse uterine CSF-1 during pregnancy, suggested by studies of the bone marrow colony stimulating activity of uterine extracts, was recently demonstrated by(More)
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) stimulates hemopoietic cell proliferation, differentiation, and functional activation by inducing the expression of specific genes. As part of an investigation of the regulation of gene expression by GM-CSF, we have previously identified a novel murine GM-CSF-inducible gene, A1. In this report, we(More)
A1, a bcl-2 family member, has been identified as a hematopoietic-specific, early inducible gene. In this study it is shown that stable transfection of A1 into an interleukin-3 (IL-3)-dependent myeloid precursor cell line, 32D c13, leads to a retardation of IL-3 withdrawal-induced cell death similar to that observed with transfection of bcl-2. However,(More)
Autophagy has been shown to contribute to defense against intracellular bacteria and parasites. In comparison, the ability of such pathogens to manipulate host cell autophagy to their advantage has not been examined. Here we present evidence that infection by Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular protozoan parasite, induces host cell autophagy in both HeLa(More)
The regulation and function of autophagy in response to metabolic signals is not yet well understood. A recent study from our laboratory indicates that an intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, derives nutritive benefit from the upregulation of host cell autophagy. We discuss this and related findings suggesting that autophagy in infected cells(More)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a high-risk condition for human colorectal cancer. However, our mechanistic understanding of the link between inflammation and tumorigenesis in the colon is limited. Here we established a novel mouse model of colitis-associated cancer by genetically inactivating signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3)(More)
The invasion of host cells by Toxoplasma gondii is accompanied by a reorganization of host cell structure, in which the host centrosome and Golgi apparatus are localized to the vacuole, and mitochondria, microtubules, and endolysosomes are recruited to the vacuole perimeter. The mechanism and functional significance of this process have not been well(More)
Regenerative therapeutic strategies for joint diseases usually employ either enriched concentrates of bone marrow-derived stem cells, chondrogenic preparations such as platelet-rich plasma, or irritant solutions such as hyperosmotic dextrose. In this case series, we describe our experience with a simple, cost-effective regenerative treatment using direct(More)
Early gene expression associated with the mitogenic response to colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) has been examined in BAC1.2F5, a CSF-1-dependent murine macrophage cell line. Stimulation of arrested cells by CSF-1 resulted in acute, transient elevation in c-fos and subsequently in c-myc mRNA levels. Dramatic, sustained elevations were observed for JE and(More)
The role of apoptosis in regulating the course of intracellular microbial infection is not well understood. We studied the relationship between apoptotic regulation and bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) treatment in murine peritoneal exudate macrophages (PEM) and the J774 macrophage cell line. In both PEM and J774 cells, mRNA expression of the anti-apoptotic(More)