Amos Richmond

Learn More
The interrelationships between the optical path in flat plate reactors and photosynthetic productivity were elucidated. In preliminary works, a great surge in photosynthetic productivity was attained in flat plate photoreactors with an ultra short (e.g. 1.0 cm) optical path, in which extremely high culture density was facilitated by vigorous stirring and(More)
The relationships between areal (g m(-2) per day) and volumetric (g l(-1) per day) productivity of Nannochloropsis sp. as affected by the light-path (ranging from 1.3 to 17.0 cm) of a vertical flat plate glass photobioreactor were elucidated. In general, the shorter the length of the light-path (LP), the smaller the areal volume and the higher the(More)
The effect of the rate of mixing on productivity of algal mass in relation to photon flux density and algal concentration was quantitatively evaluated in cultures ofSpirulina platensis grown in a newly designed flat-plate photobioreactor. Special emphasis was placed on elucidating the principles underlying efficient utilization of high photon flux density(More)
I was grateful – and indeed honored – to have had the opportunity to provide the opening presentation for the 1999 International Conference on Applied Algology based on my personal views. Microalgal biotechnology at the end of the millennium – and after some fifty years of much research, requires some ‘soulsearching’, for I cannot help a feeling of(More)
Particularly high population densities are readily sustainable in newly designed glass column reactors. The optimal density ofIsochrysis galbana in these columns in summer was 4.6 g L−1 dry algal mass at which value the highest sustainable productivity obtained was a record of 1.6 g L−1 d−1. The population density exerted a direct effect on productivity:(More)
This work attempts to identify growth conditions for maximal productivity of cell mass and of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in ultrahigh cell density cultures of Nannochloropsis sp. Using flat plate reactors with a narrow (1–2 cm) light path and rigorous stirring exposed to high photon flux densities (1000–3000 μmol photons m−# s−"), record population(More)
Efficient management of mass algal cultures requires appreciation of the most important factors governing the light regime of the average cell, i.e. the interrelationships between the intensity of the light source – never the sole factor involved in mass culture productivity – and the optimal cell density affected by the optical path. The latter is a(More)
A novel reactor for outdoor production of microalgae is described. Air-lift is used for circulation of the culture in transparent tubes lying on the ground and interconnected by a manifold. Dissolved O2 is removed through a gas-separator placed 2.0 m above the tubes and water-spray is used for cooling. The manifold permits short-run durations between(More)
Basic issues involved in effective use of a high photon irradiance for mass production of microalgae are elucidated: efficient utilisation of high irradiance requires cultures of high cell density grown in reactors with a narrow light path. The smaller the light-path, the higher the growth rate and the volume output rate (g L−1d−1) of cell mass. Areal(More)
This work represents an attempt to assess the relative contribution of the factors limiting productivity ofSpirulina platensis in open raceways throughout the year. Temperature of the culture during daylight exerted the predominant effect on productivity and elevating the temperature resulted in a significant rise in productivity even in summer.(More)