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a a a b c a d Abstract The need to decrease signal delay and cross-talk in interconnects within integrated circuits is becoming increasingly important as device dimensions shrink. Electrical connections require lower resistivity metals and lower dielectric constant insulating films to meet future goals. Even these materials may not provide for sufficient(More)
The ultrafast conversion of electrical signals to optical signals at the nanoscale is of fundamental interest for data processing, telecommunication and optical interconnects. However, the modulation bandwidths of semiconductor light-emitting diodes are limited by the spontaneous recombination rate of electron-hole pairs, and the footprint of electrically(More)
A prototype scripting language was introduced in 2002 to assist the blind in creating forms for Visual Basic programs in a much simpler fashion; currently, creating these forms are particularly difficult for the blind and visually impaired. The language is expanded to include the Visual Basic objects that were omitted from the original grammar for the(More)
An adjustable spiral phase plate and computer-generated holograms were investigated as methods for creating optical vortices. The phase plate was created by cutting a plastic microscope cover slip from a corner to its center and separating the resultant tabs by inserting a uniformly thick wedge between them. The computer-generated holograms were designed by(More)
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