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Stem cell homing and repopulation are not well understood. The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and its receptor CXCR4 were found to be critical for murine bone marrow engraftment by human severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) repopulating stem cells. Treatment of human cells with antibodies to CXCR4 prevented engraftment. In vitro(More)
Leukocyte recruitment to target tissue is initiated by weak rolling attachments to vessel wall ligands followed by firm integrin-dependent arrest triggered by endothelial chemokines. We show here that immobilized chemokines can augment not only arrest but also earlier integrin-mediated capture (tethering) of lymphocytes on inflamed endothelium. Furthermore,(More)
The chemokine receptor CXCR3 is predominantly expressed on activated T and natural killer (NK) cells. CXCR3 and its ligands, CXCL11, CXCL10, and CXCL9, play a major role in T-helper 1 (Th1)-dependent inflammatory responses. CXCL11 is the most dominant physiological inducer of adhesion, migration, and internalization of CXCR3. To study the role of CXCR3(More)
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) causes diverse infections in humans, ranging from mild to life-threatening invasive diseases, such as necrotizing fasciitis (NF), a rapidly progressing deep tissue infection. Despite prompt treatments, NF remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, even in previously healthy individuals. The early recruitment of(More)
BACKGROUND Delayed hematopoietic recovery is a major drawback of umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation. Transplantation of ex vivo-expanded UCB shortens time to hematopoietic recovery, but long-term, robust engraftment by the expanded unit has yet to be demonstrated. We tested the hypothesis that a UCB-derived cell product consisting of stem cells(More)
In the maternal decidua, natural killer (NK) cells, characterized by lack of CD16, are found in direct contact with the fetal extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs). It is yet unknown which factors contribute to the specific homing of this unique NK subset to the decidua. In this study we analyze the chemokine receptor repertoire on various NK populations derived(More)
Trafficking of human CD34 + stem/progenitor cells (HSCs/HPCs) is regulated by chemokines, cytokines, proteolytic enzymes and adhesion molecules. We report that the adhesion receptor CD44 and its major ligand, hyaluronic acid (HA), are essential for homing into the BM and spleen of NOD/SCID mice and engraftment by human HSCs. Homing was blocked by anti-CD44(More)
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) causes the life-threatening infection in humans known as necrotizing fasciitis (NF). Infected subcutaneous tissues from an NF patient and mice challenged with the same GAS strain possessed high bacterial loads but a striking paucity of infiltrating polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). Impaired PMN recruitment was attributed to(More)
Stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha/beta (SDF-1alpha/beta) is phylogenetically a primitive chemokine widely expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types. This expression is detectable in the absence of stimuli provided by bacterial or viral infections and allergic or autoimmune disorders. Based on these and other findings, SDF-1alpha has not been(More)
The Chemokine receptor CXCR4 and its ligand stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1/CXCL12) are important players involved in cross-talk between leukemia cells and the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. CXCR4 expression is associated with poor prognosis in AML patients with and without the mutated FLT3 gene.CXCL12 which is constrictively secreted from the BM stroma(More)