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Major international projects are underway that are aimed at creating a comprehensive catalogue of all the genes responsible for the initiation and progression of cancer. These studies involve the sequencing of matched tumour-normal samples followed by mathematical analysis to identify those genes in which mutations occur more frequently than expected by(More)
De novo mutation plays an important role in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Notably, pathogenic copy number variants (CNVs) are characterized by high mutation rates. We hypothesize that hypermutability is a property of ASD genes and may also include nucleotide-substitution hot spots. We investigated global patterns of germline mutation by whole-genome(More)
Human genetic variation is distributed nonrandomly across the genome, though the principles governing its distribution are only partially known. DNA replication creates opportunities for mutation, and the timing of DNA replication correlates with the density of SNPs across the human genome. To enable deeper investigation of how DNA replication timing(More)
The germinal center (GC) is a microanatomical compartment wherein high-affinity antibody-producing B cells are selectively expanded. B cells proliferate and mutate their antibody genes in the dark zone (DZ) of the GC and are then selected by T cells in the light zone (LZ) on the basis of affinity. Here, we show that T cell help regulates the speed of cell(More)
Cancer is a disease potentiated by mutations in somatic cells. Cancer mutations are not distributed uniformly along the human genome. Instead, different human genomic regions vary by up to fivefold in the local density of cancer somatic mutations, posing a fundamental problem for statistical methods used in cancer genomics. Epigenomic organization has been(More)
Eukaryotic centromeres are maintained at specific chromosomal sites over many generations. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, centromeres are genetic elements defined by a DNA sequence that is both necessary and sufficient for function; whereas, in most other eukaryotes, centromeres are maintained by poorly characterized epigenetic mechanisms in(More)
Mutations create variation in the population, fuel evolution and cause genetic diseases. Current knowledge about de novo mutations is incomplete and mostly indirect. Here we analyze 11,020 de novo mutations from the whole genomes of 250 families. We show that de novo mutations in the offspring of older fathers are not only more numerous but also occur more(More)
In eukaryotic cells, genomic DNA replicates in a defined temporal order. The inactive X chromosome (Xi), the most extensive instance of facultative heterochromatin in mammals, replicates later than the active X chromosome (Xa), but the replication dynamics of inactive chromatin are not known. By profiling human DNA replication in an allele-specific,(More)
We describe the DNA replication timing programs of 14 yeast mutants with an extended S phase identified by a novel genome-wide screen. These mutants are associated with the DNA replication machinery, cell-cycle control, and dNTP synthesis and affect different parts of S phase. In 13 of the mutants, origin activation time scales with the duration of S phase.(More)
Many overlapping surveillance and repair mechanisms operate in eukaryotic cells to ensure the stability of the genome. We have screened to isolate yeast mutants exhibiting increased levels of recombination between repeated sequences. Here we characterize one of these mutants, elg1. Strains lacking Elg1p exhibit elevated levels of recombination between(More)