Amit S. Kalgutkar

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Cytochrome P450 constitute a superfamily of heme-containing enzymes that catalyze the oxidative biotransformation of structurally diverse xenobiotics including drugs. Inhibition of P450 enzymes is by far the most common mechanism which can lead to DDIs. P450 inhibition can be categorized as reversible (competitive or non-competitive) or irreversible(More)
A variety of drugs inhibit the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin G2 by the cyclooxygenase (COX) activity of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthases. Several modes of inhibitor binding in the COX active site have been described including ion pairing of carboxylic acid containing inhibitors with Arg-120 of COX-1 and COX-2 and insertion of(More)
N-[(3R)-1-Azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl]furo[2,3-c]pyridine-5-carboxamide (14, PHA-543,613), a novel agonist of the alpha7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (alpha7 nAChR), has been identified as a potential treatment of cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Compound 14 is a potent and selective alpha7 nAChR agonist with an excellent in vitro profile.(More)
The occurrence of idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions during late clinical trials or after a drug has been released can lead to a severe restriction in its use and even in its withdrawal. Metabolic activation of relatively inert functional groups to reactive electrophilic intermediates is considered to be an obligatory event in the etiology of many(More)
Treatment with the antidepressant nefazodone has been associated with clinical idiosyncratic hepatotoxicty. Using membranes expressing human bile salt export pump (BSEP), human sandwich hepatocytes, and intact rats, we compared nefazodone and its marketed analogs, buspirone and trazodone. We found that nefazodone caused a strong inhibition of BSEP (IC(50) =(More)
All nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit the cyclooxygenase (COX) isozymes to different extents, which accounts for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities and their gastrointestinal side effects. We have exploited biochemical differences between the two COX enzymes to identify a strategy for converting carboxylate-containing NSAIDs(More)
The 3-unsubstituted isoxazole ring in the anti-inflammatory drug leflunomide undergoes a unique N-O bond cleavage to the active alpha-cyanoenol metabolite A771726, which resides in the same oxidation state as the parent. In vitro studies were conducted to characterize drug-metabolizing enzyme(s) responsible for ring opening and to gain insight into the(More)
Recent studies from our laboratory have shown that derivatization of the carboxylate moiety in substrate analogue inhibitors, such as 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid, and in nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as indomethacin and meclofenamic acid, results in the generation of potent and selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors(More)
The therapeutic benefits of the antidepressant nefazodone have been hampered by several cases of acute hepatotoxicity/liver failure. Although the mechanism of hepatotoxicity remains unknown, it is possible that reactive metabolites of nefazodone play a causative role. Studies were initiated to determine whether nefazodone undergoes bioactivation in human(More)