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BACKGROUND Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors have shown only modest clinical activity when used as single agents to treat cancers. They decrease tumor cell expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1alpha) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Hypothesizing that this might normalize tumor vasculature, we examined the(More)
Immune checkpoint inhibitors result in impressive clinical responses, but optimal results will require combination with each other and other therapies. This raises fundamental questions about mechanisms of non-redundancy and resistance. Here we report major tumour regressions in a subset of patients with metastatic melanoma treated with an anti-CTLA4(More)
BACKGROUND Because few large studies of pediatric ependymoma treatment are available, the authors believed that a retrospective review of treatment outcomes from a single institution would yield potentially valuable information regarding potential prognostic factors. In this article, they report their 20-year institutional experience with this disease. (More)
The c-Myc protein is a helix-loop-helix leucine zipper oncogenic transcription factor that participates in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The biochemical function of c-Myc has been well described, yet the identities of downstream effectors are just beginning to emerge. We describe the identification of a set of(More)
The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway can increase vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF-1alpha) expression. We examined the effect of nelfinavir, an HIV protease inhibitor that inhibits Akt signaling, on VEGF and HIF-1alpha expression and on angiogenesis, tumor oxygenation, and radiosensitization.(More)
Glioblastomas are malignant brain tumors that are rarely curable, even with aggressive therapy (surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation). Glioblastomas frequently display loss of PTEN and/or epidermal growth factor receptor activation, both of which activate the PI3K pathway. This pathway can increase vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and(More)
This paper presents an optimal control recycling production inventory system in fuzzy environment. The used items are bought back and then either put on recycling or disposal. Recycled products can be used for the new products which are sold again. Here, the rate of production, recycling and disposal are assumed to be function of time and considered as(More)
BACKGROUND M-CSF recruits mononuclear phagocytes which regulate processes such as angiogenesis and metastases in tumors. VEGF is a potent activator of angiogenesis as it promotes endothelial cell proliferation and new blood vessel formation. Previously, we reported that in vitro M-CSF induces the expression of biologically-active VEGF from human monocytes.(More)
Histone deacetylases mediate critical cellular functions but relatively little is known about mechanisms controlling their expression, including expression of HDAC4, a Class II HDAC implicated in the modulation of cellular differentiation and viability. Endogenous HDAC4 mRNA, protein levels and promoter activity were all readily repressed by mithramycin,(More)