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Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to sepsis has a high mortality rate with limited treatment options. High density lipoprotein (HDL) exerts innate protective effects in systemic inflammation. However, its role in ARDS has not been well studied. Peptides such as L-4F mimic the secondary structural features and functions of apolipoprotein(More)
Leukotriene A(4) hydrolase (LTA(4)H) is a proinflammatory enzyme that generates the inflammatory mediator leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)). LTA(4)H also possesses aminopeptidase activity with unknown substrate and physiological importance; we identified the neutrophil chemoattractant proline-glycine-proline (PGP) as this physiological substrate. PGP is a biomarker(More)
A novel neutrophil chemoattractant derived from collagen, proline-glycine-proline (PGP), has been recently characterized in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This peptide is derived via the proteolytic activity of matrix metalloproteases (MMP's)-8/9 and PE, enzymes produced by neutrophils and present in COPD serum and sputum. Valproic acid (VPA)(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic neutrophilic inflammation is a poorly understood feature in a variety of diseases with notable worldwide morbidity and mortality. We have recently characterized N-acetyl Pro-Gly-Pro (Ac-PGP) as an important neutrophil (PMN) chemoattractant in chronic inflammation generated from the breakdown of collagen by the actions of MMP-9. MMP-9 is(More)
Prolyl endopeptidase (PE), a protease that cleaves after proline residues in oligopeptides, is highly active in brain and degrades neuropeptides in vitro. We have recently demonstrated that PE, in concert with MMP's, can generate PGP (proline-glycine-proline), a novel, neutrophil chemoattractant, from collagen. In this study, we demonstrate that human(More)
BACKGROUND Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) -8 and -9 may play key roles in the modulation of neutrophilic lung inflammation seen in pediatric Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). We aimed to perform a comprehensive analysis of MMP-8 and MMP-9 activity in tracheal aspirates of pediatric ARDS patients compared with non-ARDS controls, testing whether(More)
Pediatric Acute Lung Injury (ALI) is associated with a high mortality and morbidity, and dysregulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may play an important role in the pathogenesis and evolution of ALI. Here we examined MMP expression and activity in pediatric ALI compared with controls. MMP-8, -9, and to a lesser extent, MMP-2, -3, -11 and -12 were(More)
Possession of a properly functioning innate immune system in the lung is vital to prevent infections due to the ongoing exposure of the lung to pathogens. While mechanisms of pulmonary innate immunity have been well studied, our knowledge of how these systems are altered in disease states, leading to increased susceptibility to infections, is limited. One(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic rhinosinusitis has a major impact on the quality of life of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and may contribute to progression of chronic lung disease. Despite multiple sinus surgeries, maxillary sinus involvement is a recurrent problem. The modified endoscopic medial maxillectomy (MEMM) permits debridement in the clinic, improves(More)
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is chronic lung disease characterized by an unrelenting neutrophil-predominant airway inflammatory response. This inflammation leads to extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and eventually to the development of bronchiectasis. While many components of the immune response in CF have been well-characterized, recent data suggests that(More)