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Determining the genetic basis of cancer requires comprehensive analyses of large collections of histopathologically well-classified primary tumours. Here we report the results of a collaborative study to discover somatic mutations in 188 human lung adenocarcinomas. DNA sequencing of 623 genes with known or potential relationships to cancer revealed more(More)
Systematic efforts are underway to decipher the genetic changes associated with tumor initiation and progression. However, widespread clinical application of this information is hampered by an inability to identify critical genetic events across the spectrum of human tumors with adequate sensitivity and scalability. Here, we have adapted high-throughput(More)
Lineage-survival oncogenes are activated by somatic DNA alterations in cancers arising from the cell lineages in which these genes play a role in normal development. Here we show that a peak of genomic amplification on chromosome 3q26.33 found in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the lung and esophagus contains the transcription factor gene SOX2, which is(More)
Oncogenic activation of tyrosine kinases is a common mechanism of carcinogenesis and, given the druggable nature of these enzymes, an attractive target for anticancer therapy. Here, we show that somatic mutations of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) tyrosine kinase gene, FGFR2, are present in 12% of endometrial carcinomas, with additional(More)
Although 75% of endometrial cancers are treated at an early stage, 15% to 20% of these recur. We performed an integrated analysis of genome-wide expression and copy-number data for primary endometrial carcinomas with extensive clinical and histopathological data to detect features predictive of recurrent disease. Unsupervised analysis of the expression data(More)
During Caenorhabditis elegans vulval development, the anchor cell (AC) in the somatic gonad secretes an epidermal growth factor (EGF) to activate the EGF receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway in the adjacent vulval precursor cells (VPCs). The inductive AC signal specifies the vulval fates of the three proximal VPCs P5.p, P6.p, and P7.p. The C. elegans Rhomboid(More)
UNLABELLED While genomically targeted therapies have improved outcomes for patients with lung adenocarcinoma, little is known about the genomic alterations which drive squamous cell lung cancer. Sanger sequencing of the tyrosine kinome identified mutations in the DDR2 kinase gene in 3.8% of squamous cell lung cancers and cell lines. Squamous lung cancer(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Classifying tumors and identifying therapeutic targets requires a description of the genetic changes underlying cancer. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays provide a high-resolution platform for describing several types of genetic changes simultaneously. With the resolution of these arrays increasing exponentially, they are(More)
BACKGROUND Squamous cell lung carcinomas account for approximately 25% of new lung carcinoma cases and 40,000 deaths per year in the United States. Although there are multiple genomically targeted therapies for lung adenocarcinoma, none has yet been reported in squamous cell lung carcinoma. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Using SNP array analysis, we found(More)
The completion of the Human Genome Project established a baseline for human genome reference sequence allowing characterization of various alterations underlying several human diseases, including cancer and has brought the field of genomics to this unprecedented moment of a great scientific ferment. It has also sparked a concomitant revolution in sequencing(More)